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Author Jon Almazan edit  openurl
  Title Learning to Represent Handwritten Shapes and Words for Matching and Recognition Type Book Whole
  Year 2014 Publication PhD Thesis, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona-CVC Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Writing is one of the most important forms of communication and for centuries, handwriting had been the most reliable way to preserve knowledge. However, despite the recent development of printing houses and electronic devices, handwriting is still broadly used for taking notes, doing annotations, or sketching ideas.
Transferring the ability of understanding handwritten text or recognizing handwritten shapes to computers has been the goal of many researches due to its huge importance for many different fields. However, designing good representations to deal with handwritten shapes, e.g. symbols or words, is a very challenging problem due to the large variability of these kinds of shapes. One of the consequences of working with handwritten shapes is that we need representations to be robust, i.e., able to adapt to large intra-class variability. We need representations to be discriminative, i.e., able to learn what are the differences between classes. And, we need representations to be efficient, i.e., able to be rapidly computed and compared. Unfortunately, current techniques of handwritten shape representation for matching and recognition do not fulfill some or all of these requirements.
Through this thesis we focus on the problem of learning to represent handwritten shapes aimed at retrieval and recognition tasks. Concretely, on the first part of the thesis, we focus on the general problem of representing any kind of handwritten shape. We first present a novel shape descriptor based on a deformable grid that deals with large deformations by adapting to the shape and where the cells of the grid can be used to extract different features. Then, we propose to use this descriptor to learn statistical models, based on the Active Appearance Model, that jointly learns the variability in structure and texture of a given class. Then, on the second part, we focus on a concrete application, the problem of representing handwritten words, for the tasks of word spotting, where the goal is to find all instances of a query word in a dataset of images, and recognition. First, we address the segmentation-free problem and propose an unsupervised, sliding-window-based approach that achieves state-of- the-art results in two public datasets. Second, we address the more challenging multi-writer problem, where the variability in words exponentially increases. We describe an approach in which both word images and text strings are embedded in a common vectorial subspace, and where those that represent the same word are close together. This is achieved by a combination of label embedding and attributes learning, and a common subspace regression. This leads to a low-dimensional, unified representation of word images and strings, resulting in a method that allows one to perform either image and text searches, as well as image transcription, in a unified framework. We evaluate our methods on different public datasets of both handwritten documents and natural images showing results comparable or better than the state-of-the-art on spotting and recognition tasks.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis Ph.D. thesis  
  Publisher Ediciones Graficas Rey Place of Publication Editor Ernest Valveny;Alicia Fornes  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes DAG; 600.077 Approved no  
  Call Number (up) Admin @ si @ Alm2014 Serial 2572  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author David Aldavert; Marçal Rusiñol edit   pdf
doi  openurl
  Title Manuscript text line detection and segmentation using second-order derivatives analysis Type Conference Article
  Year 2018 Publication 13th IAPR International Workshop on Document Analysis Systems Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 293 - 298  
  Keywords text line detection; text line segmentation; text region detection; second-order derivatives  
  Abstract In this paper, we explore the use of second-order derivatives to detect text lines on handwritten document images. Taking advantage that the second derivative gives a minimum response when a dark linear element over a
bright background has the same orientation as the filter, we use this operator to create a map with the local orientation and strength of putative text lines in the document. Then, we detect line segments by selecting and merging the filter responses that have a similar orientation and scale. Finally, text lines are found by merging the segments that are within the same text region. The proposed segmentation algorithm, is learning-free while showing a performance similar to the state of the art methods in publicly available datasets.
 
  Address Viena; Austria; April 2018  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference DAS  
  Notes DAG; 600.084; 600.129; 302.065; 600.121 Approved no  
  Call Number (up) Admin @ si @ AlR2018a Serial 3104  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author David Aldavert; Marçal Rusiñol edit   pdf
doi  openurl
  Title Synthetically generated semantic codebook for Bag-of-Visual-Words based word spotting Type Conference Article
  Year 2018 Publication 13th IAPR International Workshop on Document Analysis Systems Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 223 - 228  
  Keywords Word Spotting; Bag of Visual Words; Synthetic Codebook; Semantic Information  
  Abstract Word-spotting methods based on the Bag-ofVisual-Words framework have demonstrated a good retrieval performance even when used in a completely unsupervised manner. Although unsupervised approaches are suitable for
large document collections due to the cost of acquiring labeled data, these methods also present some drawbacks. For instance, having to train a suitable “codebook” for a certain dataset has a high computational cost. Therefore, in
this paper we present a database agnostic codebook which is trained from synthetic data. The aim of the proposed approach is to generate a codebook where the only information required is the type of script used in the document. The use of synthetic data also allows to easily incorporate semantic
information in the codebook generation. So, the proposed method is able to determine which set of codewords have a semantic representation of the descriptor feature space. Experimental results show that the resulting codebook attains a state-of-the-art performance while having a more compact representation.
 
  Address Viena; Austria; April 2018  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference DAS  
  Notes DAG; 600.084; 600.129; 600.121 Approved no  
  Call Number (up) Admin @ si @ AlR2018b Serial 3105  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author David Aldavert; Marçal Rusiñol; Ricardo Toledo; Josep Llados edit   pdf
doi  openurl
  Title Integrating Visual and Textual Cues for Query-by-String Word Spotting Type Conference Article
  Year 2013 Publication 12th International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 511 - 515  
  Keywords  
  Abstract In this paper, we present a word spotting framework that follows the query-by-string paradigm where word images are represented both by textual and visual representations. The textual representation is formulated in terms of character $n$-grams while the visual one is based on the bag-of-visual-words scheme. These two representations are merged together and projected to a sub-vector space. This transform allows to, given a textual query, retrieve word instances that were only represented by the visual modality. Moreover, this statistical representation can be used together with state-of-the-art indexation structures in order to deal with large-scale scenarios. The proposed method is evaluated using a collection of historical documents outperforming state-of-the-art performances.  
  Address Washington; USA; August 2013  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1520-5363 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference ICDAR  
  Notes DAG; ADAS; 600.045; 600.055; 600.061 Approved no  
  Call Number (up) Admin @ si @ ART2013 Serial 2224  
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Author David Aldavert; Marçal Rusiñol; Ricardo Toledo; Josep Llados edit  doi
openurl 
  Title A Study of Bag-of-Visual-Words Representations for Handwritten Keyword Spotting Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication International Journal on Document Analysis and Recognition Abbreviated Journal IJDAR  
  Volume 18 Issue 3 Pages 223-234  
  Keywords Bag-of-Visual-Words; Keyword spotting; Handwritten documents; Performance evaluation  
  Abstract The Bag-of-Visual-Words (BoVW) framework has gained popularity among the document image analysis community, specifically as a representation of handwritten words for recognition or spotting purposes. Although in the computer vision field the BoVW method has been greatly improved, most of the approaches in the document image analysis domain still rely on the basic implementation of the BoVW method disregarding such latest refinements. In this paper, we present a review of those improvements and its application to the keyword spotting task. We thoroughly evaluate their impact against a baseline system in the well-known George Washington dataset and compare the obtained results against nine state-of-the-art keyword spotting methods. In addition, we also compare both the baseline and improved systems with the methods presented at the Handwritten Keyword Spotting Competition 2014.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Springer Berlin Heidelberg Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1433-2833 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes DAG; ADAS; 600.055; 600.061; 601.223; 600.077; 600.097 Approved no  
  Call Number (up) Admin @ si @ ART2015 Serial 2679  
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Author David Aldavert; Marçal Rusiñol; Ricardo Toledo edit   pdf
doi  openurl
  Title Automatic Static/Variable Content Separation in Administrative Document Images Type Conference Article
  Year 2017 Publication 14th International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract In this paper we present an automatic method for separating static and variable content from administrative document images. An alignment approach is able to unsupervisedly build probabilistic templates from a set of examples of the same document kind. Such templates define which is the likelihood of every pixel of being either static or variable content. In the extraction step, the same alignment technique is used to match
an incoming image with the template and to locate the positions where variable fields appear. We validate our approach on the public NIST Structured Tax Forms Dataset.
 
  Address Kyoto; Japan; November 2017  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference ICDAR  
  Notes DAG; 600.084; 600.121 Approved no  
  Call Number (up) Admin @ si @ ART2017 Serial 3001  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Jon Almazan; Ernest Valveny; Alicia Fornes edit  doi
openurl 
  Title Deforming the Blurred Shape Model for Shape Description and Recognition Type Conference Article
  Year 2011 Publication 5th Iberian Conference on Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 6669 Issue Pages 1-8  
  Keywords  
  Abstract This paper presents a new model for the description and recognition of distorted shapes, where the image is represented by a pixel density distribution based on the Blurred Shape Model combined with a non-linear image deformation model. This leads to an adaptive structure able to capture elastic deformations in shapes. This method has been evaluated using thee different datasets where deformations are present, showing the robustness and good performance of the new model. Moreover, we show that incorporating deformation and flexibility, the new model outperforms the BSM approach when classifying shapes with high variability of appearance.  
  Address Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. Spain  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Springer-Verlag Place of Publication Berlin Editor Jordi Vitria; Joao Miguel Raposo; Mario Hernandez  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title LNCS  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference IbPRIA  
  Notes DAG; Approved no  
  Call Number (up) Admin @ si @ AVF2011 Serial 1732  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Dena Bazazian edit  isbn
openurl 
  Title Fully Convolutional Networks for Text Understanding in Scene Images Type Book Whole
  Year 2018 Publication PhD Thesis, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona-CVC Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Text understanding in scene images has gained plenty of attention in the computer vision community and it is an important task in many applications as text carries semantically rich information about scene content and context. For instance, reading text in a scene can be applied to autonomous driving, scene understanding or assisting visually impaired people. The general aim of scene text understanding is to localize and recognize text in scene images. Text regions are first localized in the original image by a trained detector model and afterwards fed into a recognition module. The tasks of localization and recognition are highly correlated since an inaccurate localization can affect the recognition task.
The main purpose of this thesis is to devise efficient methods for scene text understanding. We investigate how the latest results on deep learning can advance text understanding pipelines. Recently, Fully Convolutional Networks (FCNs) and derived methods have achieved a significant performance on semantic segmentation and pixel level classification tasks. Therefore, we took benefit of the strengths of FCN approaches in order to detect text in natural scenes. In this thesis we have focused on two challenging tasks of scene text understanding which are Text Detection and Word Spotting. For the task of text detection, we have proposed an efficient text proposal technique in scene images. We have considered the Text Proposals method as the baseline which is an approach to reduce the search space of possible text regions in an image. In order to improve the Text Proposals method we combined it with Fully Convolutional Networks to efficiently reduce the number of proposals while maintaining the same level of accuracy and thus gaining a significant speed up. Our experiments demonstrate that this text proposal approach yields significantly higher recall rates than the line based text localization techniques, while also producing better-quality localization. We have also applied this technique on compressed images such as videos from wearable egocentric cameras. For the task of word spotting, we have introduced a novel mid-level word representation method. We have proposed a technique to create and exploit an intermediate representation of images based on text attributes which roughly correspond to character probability maps. Our representation extends the concept of Pyramidal Histogram Of Characters (PHOC) by exploiting Fully Convolutional Networks to derive a pixel-wise mapping of the character distribution within candidate word regions. We call this representation the Soft-PHOC. Furthermore, we show how to use Soft-PHOC descriptors for word spotting tasks through an efficient text line proposal algorithm. To evaluate the detected text, we propose a novel line based evaluation along with the classic bounding box based approach. We test our method on incidental scene text images which comprises real-life scenarios such as urban scenes. The importance of incidental scene text images is due to the complexity of backgrounds, perspective, variety of script and language, short text and little linguistic context. All of these factors together makes the incidental scene text images challenging.
 
  Address November 2018  
  Corporate Author Thesis Ph.D. thesis  
  Publisher Ediciones Graficas Rey Place of Publication Editor Dimosthenis Karatzas;Andrew Bagdanov  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-84-948531-1-1 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes DAG; 600.121 Approved no  
  Call Number (up) Admin @ si @ Baz2018 Serial 3220  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Jean-Christophe Burie; J. Chazalon; M.Coustaty; S.Eskenazi; Muhammad Muzzamil Luqman; M.Mehri; N.Nayef; Jean-Marc Ogier; S.Prum; Marçal Rusiñol edit  url
doi  openurl
  Title ICDAR2015 Competition on Smartphone Document Capture and OCR (SmartDoc) Type Conference Article
  Year 2015 Publication 13th International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition ICDAR2015 Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 1161 - 1165  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Smartphones are enabling new ways of capture,
hence arises the need for seamless and reliable acquisition and
digitization of documents, in order to convert them to editable,
searchable and a more human-readable format. Current stateof-the-art
works lack databases and baseline benchmarks for
digitizing mobile captured documents. We have organized a
competition for mobile document capture and OCR in order to
address this issue. The competition is structured into two independent
challenges: smartphone document capture, and smartphone
OCR. This report describes the datasets for both challenges
along with their ground truth, details the performance evaluation
protocols which we used, and presents the final results of the
participating methods. In total, we received 13 submissions: 8
for challenge-I, and 5 for challenge-2.
 
  Address Nancy; France; August 2015  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference ICDAR  
  Notes DAG; 600.077; 601.223; 600.084 Approved no  
  Call Number (up) Admin @ si @ BCC2015 Serial 2681  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Arnau Baro; Jialuo Chen; Alicia Fornes; Beata Megyesi edit   pdf
doi  openurl
  Title Towards a generic unsupervised method for transcription of encoded manuscripts Type Conference Article
  Year 2019 Publication 3rd International Conference on Digital Access to Textual Cultural Heritage Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 73-78  
  Keywords A. Baró, J. Chen, A. Fornés, B. Megyesi.  
  Abstract Historical ciphers, a special type of manuscripts, contain encrypted information, important for the interpretation of our history. The first step towards decipherment is to transcribe the images, either manually or by automatic image processing techniques. Despite the improvements in handwritten text recognition (HTR) thanks to deep learning methodologies, the need of labelled data to train is an important limitation. Given that ciphers often use symbol sets across various alphabets and unique symbols without any transcription scheme available, these supervised HTR techniques are not suitable to transcribe ciphers. In this paper we propose an un-supervised method for transcribing encrypted manuscripts based on clustering and label propagation, which has been successfully applied to community detection in networks. We analyze the performance on ciphers with various symbol sets, and discuss the advantages and drawbacks compared to supervised HTR methods.  
  Address Brussels; May 2019  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference DATeCH  
  Notes DAG; 600.097; 600.140; 600.121 Approved no  
  Call Number (up) Admin @ si @ BCF2019 Serial 3276  
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