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Author Victor Santos; Angel Sappa; Miguel Oliveira edit  openurl
  Title Special Issue on Autonomous Driving and Driver Assistance Systems Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Robotics and Autonomous Systems Abbreviated Journal RAS  
  Volume 91 Issue Pages 208-209  
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  Notes ADAS; 600.086; 600.118 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ SSO2017 Serial (down) 2915  
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Author Cristhian A. Aguilera-Carrasco; Angel Sappa; Cristhian Aguilera; Ricardo Toledo edit  doi
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  Title Cross-Spectral Local Descriptors via Quadruplet Network Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Sensors Abbreviated Journal SENS  
  Volume 17 Issue 4 Pages 873  
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  Abstract This paper presents a novel CNN-based architecture, referred to as Q-Net, to learn local feature descriptors that are useful for matching image patches from two different spectral bands. Given correctly matched and non-matching cross-spectral image pairs, a quadruplet network is trained to map input image patches to a common Euclidean space, regardless of the input spectral band. Our approach is inspired by the recent success of triplet networks in the visible spectrum, but adapted for cross-spectral scenarios, where, for each matching pair, there are always two possible non-matching patches: one for each spectrum. Experimental evaluations on a public cross-spectral VIS-NIR dataset shows that the proposed approach improves the state-of-the-art. Moreover, the proposed technique can also be used in mono-spectral settings, obtaining a similar performance to triplet network descriptors, but requiring less training data.  
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  Notes ADAS; 600.086; 600.118 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ ASA2017 Serial (down) 2914  
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Author Miguel Oliveira; Victor Santos; Angel Sappa; P. Dias; A. Moreira edit   pdf
url  openurl
  Title Incremental texture mapping for autonomous driving Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Robotics and Autonomous Systems Abbreviated Journal RAS  
  Volume 84 Issue Pages 113-128  
  Keywords Scene reconstruction; Autonomous driving; Texture mapping  
  Abstract Autonomous vehicles have a large number of on-board sensors, not only for providing coverage all around the vehicle, but also to ensure multi-modality in the observation of the scene. Because of this, it is not trivial to come up with a single, unique representation that feeds from the data given by all these sensors. We propose an algorithm which is capable of mapping texture collected from vision based sensors onto a geometric description of the scenario constructed from data provided by 3D sensors. The algorithm uses a constrained Delaunay triangulation to produce a mesh which is updated using a specially devised sequence of operations. These enforce a partial configuration of the mesh that avoids bad quality textures and ensures that there are no gaps in the texture. Results show that this algorithm is capable of producing fine quality textures.  
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  Notes ADAS; 600.086 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ OSS2016b Serial (down) 2912  
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Author Angel Sappa; Cristhian A. Aguilera-Carrasco; Juan A. Carvajal Ayala; Miguel Oliveira; Dennis Romero; Boris Vintimilla; Ricardo Toledo edit   pdf
doi  openurl
  Title Monocular visual odometry: A cross-spectral image fusion based approach Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Robotics and Autonomous Systems Abbreviated Journal RAS  
  Volume 85 Issue Pages 26-36  
  Keywords Monocular visual odometry; LWIR-RGB cross-spectral imaging; Image fusion  
  Abstract This manuscript evaluates the usage of fused cross-spectral images in a monocular visual odometry approach. Fused images are obtained through a Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) scheme, where the best setup is empirically obtained by means of a mutual information based evaluation metric. The objective is to have a flexible scheme where fusion parameters are adapted according to the characteristics of the given images. Visual odometry is computed from the fused monocular images using an off the shelf approach. Experimental results using data sets obtained with two different platforms are presented. Additionally, comparison with a previous approach as well as with monocular-visible/infrared spectra are also provided showing the advantages of the proposed scheme.  
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  Publisher Elsevier B.V. Place of Publication Editor  
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  Notes ADAS;600.086; 600.076 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @SAC2016 Serial (down) 2811  
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Author Alejandro Gonzalez Alzate; David Vazquez; Antonio Lopez; Jaume Amores edit   pdf
doi  openurl
  Title On-Board Object Detection: Multicue, Multimodal, and Multiview Random Forest of Local Experts Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication IEEE Transactions on cybernetics Abbreviated Journal Cyber  
  Volume 47 Issue 11 Pages 3980 - 3990  
  Keywords Multicue; multimodal; multiview; object detection  
  Abstract Despite recent significant advances, object detection continues to be an extremely challenging problem in real scenarios. In order to develop a detector that successfully operates under these conditions, it becomes critical to leverage upon multiple cues, multiple imaging modalities, and a strong multiview (MV) classifier that accounts for different object views and poses. In this paper, we provide an extensive evaluation that gives insight into how each of these aspects (multicue, multimodality, and strong MV classifier) affect accuracy both individually and when integrated together. In the multimodality component, we explore the fusion of RGB and depth maps obtained by high-definition light detection and ranging, a type of modality that is starting to receive increasing attention. As our analysis reveals, although all the aforementioned aspects significantly help in improving the accuracy, the fusion of visible spectrum and depth information allows to boost the accuracy by a much larger margin. The resulting detector not only ranks among the top best performers in the challenging KITTI benchmark, but it is built upon very simple blocks that are easy to implement and computationally efficient.  
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  ISSN 2168-2267 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes ADAS; 600.085; 600.082; 600.076; 600.118 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ Serial (down) 2810  
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Author Angel Sappa; P. Carvajal; Cristhian A. Aguilera-Carrasco; Miguel Oliveira; Dennis Romero; Boris Vintimilla edit   pdf
doi  openurl
  Title Wavelet based visible and infrared image fusion: a comparative study Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Sensors Abbreviated Journal SENS  
  Volume 16 Issue 6 Pages 1-15  
  Keywords Image fusion; fusion evaluation metrics; visible and infrared imaging; discrete wavelet transform  
  Abstract This paper evaluates different wavelet-based cross-spectral image fusion strategies adopted to merge visible and infrared images. The objective is to find the best setup independently of the evaluation metric used to measure the performance. Quantitative performance results are obtained with state of the art approaches together with adaptations proposed in the current work. The options evaluated in the current work result from the combination of different setups in the wavelet image decomposition stage together with different fusion strategies for the final merging stage that generates the resulting representation. Most of the approaches evaluate results according to the application for which they are intended for. Sometimes a human observer is selected to judge the quality of the obtained results. In the current work, quantitative values are considered in order to find correlations between setups and performance of obtained results; these correlations can be used to define a criteria for selecting the best fusion strategy for a given pair of cross-spectral images. The whole procedure is evaluated with a large set of correctly registered visible and infrared image pairs, including both Near InfraRed (NIR) and Long Wave InfraRed (LWIR).  
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  Notes ADAS; 600.086; 600.076 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @SCA2016 Serial (down) 2807  
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Author Miguel Oliveira; Victor Santos; Angel Sappa; P. Dias; A. Moreira edit   pdf
doi  openurl
  Title Incremental Scenario Representations for Autonomous Driving using Geometric Polygonal Primitives Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Robotics and Autonomous Systems Abbreviated Journal RAS  
  Volume 83 Issue Pages 312-325  
  Keywords Incremental scene reconstruction; Point clouds; Autonomous vehicles; Polygonal primitives  
  Abstract When an autonomous vehicle is traveling through some scenario it receives a continuous stream of sensor data. This sensor data arrives in an asynchronous fashion and often contains overlapping or redundant information. Thus, it is not trivial how a representation of the environment observed by the vehicle can be created and updated over time. This paper presents a novel methodology to compute an incremental 3D representation of a scenario from 3D range measurements. We propose to use macro scale polygonal primitives to model the scenario. This means that the representation of the scene is given as a list of large scale polygons that describe the geometric structure of the environment. Furthermore, we propose mechanisms designed to update the geometric polygonal primitives over time whenever fresh sensor data is collected. Results show that the approach is capable of producing accurate descriptions of the scene, and that it is computationally very efficient when compared to other reconstruction techniques.  
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  Publisher Elsevier B.V. Place of Publication Editor  
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  Notes ADAS; 600.086, 600.076 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @OSS2016a Serial (down) 2806  
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Author Katerine Diaz; Aura Hernandez-Sabate; Antonio Lopez edit   pdf
doi  openurl
  Title A reduced feature set for driver head pose estimation Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Applied Soft Computing Abbreviated Journal ASOC  
  Volume 45 Issue Pages 98-107  
  Keywords Head pose estimation; driving performance evaluation; subspace based methods; linear regression  
  Abstract Evaluation of driving performance is of utmost importance in order to reduce road accident rate. Since driving ability includes visual-spatial and operational attention, among others, head pose estimation of the driver is a crucial indicator of driving performance. This paper proposes a new automatic method for coarse and fine head's yaw angle estimation of the driver. We rely on a set of geometric features computed from just three representative facial keypoints, namely the center of the eyes and the nose tip. With these geometric features, our method combines two manifold embedding methods and a linear regression one. In addition, the method has a confidence mechanism to decide if the classification of a sample is not reliable. The approach has been tested using the CMU-PIE dataset and our own driver dataset. Despite the very few facial keypoints required, the results are comparable to the state-of-the-art techniques. The low computational cost of the method and its robustness makes feasible to integrate it in massive consume devices as a real time application.  
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  Notes ADAS; 600.085; 600.076; Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ DHL2016 Serial (down) 2760  
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Author Alejandro Gonzalez Alzate; Zhijie Fang; Yainuvis Socarras; Joan Serrat; David Vazquez; Jiaolong Xu; Antonio Lopez edit   pdf
doi  openurl
  Title Pedestrian Detection at Day/Night Time with Visible and FIR Cameras: A Comparison Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Sensors Abbreviated Journal SENS  
  Volume 16 Issue 6 Pages 820  
  Keywords Pedestrian Detection; FIR  
  Abstract Despite all the significant advances in pedestrian detection brought by computer vision for driving assistance, it is still a challenging problem. One reason is the extremely varying lighting conditions under which such a detector should operate, namely day and night time. Recent research has shown that the combination of visible and non-visible imaging modalities may increase detection accuracy, where the infrared spectrum plays a critical role. The goal of this paper is to assess the accuracy gain of different pedestrian models (holistic, part-based, patch-based) when training with images in the far infrared spectrum. Specifically, we want to compare detection accuracy on test images recorded at day and nighttime if trained (and tested) using (a) plain color images, (b) just infrared images and (c) both of them. In order to obtain results for the last item we propose an early fusion approach to combine features from both modalities. We base the evaluation on a new dataset we have built for this purpose as well as on the publicly available KAIST multispectral dataset.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1424-8220 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes ADAS; 600.085; 600.076; 600.082; 601.281 Approved no  
  Call Number ADAS @ adas @ GFS2016 Serial (down) 2754  
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Author Aura Hernandez-Sabate; Meritxell Joanpere; Nuria Gorgorio; Lluis Albarracin edit   pdf
url  openurl
  Title Mathematics learning opportunities when playing a Tower Defense Game Type Journal
  Year 2015 Publication International Journal of Serious Games Abbreviated Journal IJSG  
  Volume 2 Issue 4 Pages 57-71  
  Keywords Tower Defense game; learning opportunities; mathematics; problem solving; game design  
  Abstract A qualitative research study is presented herein with the purpose of identifying mathematics learning opportunities in students between 10 and 12 years old while playing a commercial version of a Tower Defense game. These learning opportunities are understood as mathematicisable moments of the game and involve the establishment of relationships between the game and mathematical problem solving. Based on the analysis of these mathematicisable moments, we conclude that the game can promote problem-solving processes and learning opportunities that can be associated with different mathematical contents that appears in mathematics curricula, thought it seems that teacher or new game elements might be needed to facilitate the processes.  
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  Notes ADAS; 600.076 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ HJG2015 Serial (down) 2730  
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