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Author Zhijie Fang; David Vazquez; Antonio Lopez edit  doi
openurl 
  Title On-Board Detection of Pedestrian Intentions Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Sensors Abbreviated Journal SENS  
  Volume 17 Issue 10 Pages 2193  
  Keywords pedestrian intention; ADAS; self-driving  
  Abstract (up) Avoiding vehicle-to-pedestrian crashes is a critical requirement for nowadays advanced driver assistant systems (ADAS) and future self-driving vehicles. Accordingly, detecting pedestrians from raw sensor data has a history of more than 15 years of research, with vision playing a central role.
During the last years, deep learning has boosted the accuracy of image-based pedestrian detectors.
However, detection is just the first step towards answering the core question, namely is the vehicle going to crash with a pedestrian provided preventive actions are not taken? Therefore, knowing as soon as possible if a detected pedestrian has the intention of crossing the road ahead of the vehicle is
essential for performing safe and comfortable maneuvers that prevent a crash. However, compared to pedestrian detection, there is relatively little literature on detecting pedestrian intentions. This paper aims to contribute along this line by presenting a new vision-based approach which analyzes the
pose of a pedestrian along several frames to determine if he or she is going to enter the road or not. We present experiments showing 750 ms of anticipation for pedestrians crossing the road, which at a typical urban driving speed of 50 km/h can provide 15 additional meters (compared to a pure pedestrian detector) for vehicle automatic reactions or to warn the driver. Moreover, in contrast with state-of-the-art methods, our approach is monocular, neither requiring stereo nor optical flow information.
 
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  Notes ADAS; 600.085; 600.076; 601.223; 600.116; 600.118 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ FVL2017 Serial 2983  
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Author Arnau Ramisa; Alex Goldhoorn; David Aldavert; Ricardo Toledo; Ramon Lopez de Mantaras edit  doi
openurl 
  Title Combining Invariant Features and the ALV Homing Method for Autonomous Robot Navigation Based on Panoramas Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems Abbreviated Journal JIRC  
  Volume 64 Issue 3-4 Pages 625-649  
  Keywords  
  Abstract (up) Biologically inspired homing methods, such as the Average Landmark Vector, are an interesting solution for local navigation due to its simplicity. However, usually they require a modification of the environment by placing artificial landmarks in order to work reliably. In this paper we combine the Average Landmark Vector with invariant feature points automatically detected in panoramic images to overcome this limitation. The proposed approach has been evaluated first in simulation and, as promising results are found, also in two data sets of panoramas from real world environments.  
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  Publisher Springer Netherlands Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0921-0296 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes RV;ADAS Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ RGA2011 Serial 1728  
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Author Jose Manuel Alvarez; Antonio Lopez edit   pdf
openurl 
  Title Road Detection Based on Illuminant Invariance Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems Abbreviated Journal TITS  
  Volume 12 Issue 1 Pages 184-193  
  Keywords road detection  
  Abstract (up) By using an onboard camera, it is possible to detect the free road surface ahead of the ego-vehicle. Road detection is of high relevance for autonomous driving, road departure warning, and supporting driver-assistance systems such as vehicle and pedestrian detection. The key for vision-based road detection is the ability to classify image pixels as belonging or not to the road surface. Identifying road pixels is a major challenge due to the intraclass variability caused by lighting conditions. A particularly difficult scenario appears when the road surface has both shadowed and nonshadowed areas. Accordingly, we propose a novel approach to vision-based road detection that is robust to shadows. The novelty of our approach relies on using a shadow-invariant feature space combined with a model-based classifier. The model is built online to improve the adaptability of the algorithm to the current lighting and the presence of other vehicles in the scene. The proposed algorithm works in still images and does not depend on either road shape or temporal restrictions. Quantitative and qualitative experiments on real-world road sequences with heavy traffic and shadows show that the method is robust to shadows and lighting variations. Moreover, the proposed method provides the highest performance when compared with hue-saturation-intensity (HSI)-based algorithms.  
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  Notes ADAS Approved no  
  Call Number ADAS @ adas @ AlL2011 Serial 1456  
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Author Joan Serrat; Felipe Lumbreras; Idoia Ruiz edit  url
openurl 
  Title Learning to measure for preshipment garment sizing Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Measurement Abbreviated Journal MEASURE  
  Volume 130 Issue Pages 327-339  
  Keywords Apparel; Computer vision; Structured prediction; Regression  
  Abstract (up) Clothing is still manually manufactured for the most part nowadays, resulting in discrepancies between nominal and real dimensions, and potentially ill-fitting garments. Hence, it is common in the apparel industry to manually perform measures at preshipment time. We present an automatic method to obtain such measures from a single image of a garment that speeds up this task. It is generic and extensible in the sense that it does not depend explicitly on the garment shape or type. Instead, it learns through a probabilistic graphical model to identify the different contour parts. Subsequently, a set of Lasso regressors, one per desired measure, can predict the actual values of the measures. We present results on a dataset of 130 images of jackets and 98 of pants, of varying sizes and styles, obtaining 1.17 and 1.22 cm of mean absolute error, respectively.  
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  Notes ADAS: MSIAU; 600.122; 600.118 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ SLR2018 Serial 3128  
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Author David Vazquez; Jorge Bernal; F. Javier Sanchez; Gloria Fernandez-Esparrach; Antonio Lopez; Adriana Romero; Michal Drozdzal; Aaron Courville edit   pdf
url  openurl
  Title A Benchmark for Endoluminal Scene Segmentation of Colonoscopy Images Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Journal of Healthcare Engineering Abbreviated Journal JHCE  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Colonoscopy images; Deep Learning; Semantic Segmentation  
  Abstract (up) Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third cause of cancer death world-wide. Currently, the standard approach to reduce CRC-related mortality is to perform regular screening in search for polyps and colonoscopy is the screening tool of choice. The main limitations of this screening procedure are polyp miss- rate and inability to perform visual assessment of polyp malignancy. These drawbacks can be reduced by designing Decision Support Systems (DSS) aim- ing to help clinicians in the different stages of the procedure by providing endoluminal scene segmentation. Thus, in this paper, we introduce an extended benchmark of colonoscopy image segmentation, with the hope of establishing a new strong benchmark for colonoscopy image analysis research. The proposed dataset consists of 4 relevant classes to inspect the endolumninal scene, tar- geting different clinical needs. Together with the dataset and taking advantage of advances in semantic segmentation literature, we provide new baselines by training standard fully convolutional networks (FCN). We perform a compar- ative study to show that FCN significantly outperform, without any further post-processing, prior results in endoluminal scene segmentation, especially with respect to polyp segmentation and localization.  
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  Notes ADAS; MV; 600.075; 600.085; 600.076; 601.281; 600.118 Approved no  
  Call Number VBS2017b Serial 2940  
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Author Antonio Lopez; Gabriel Villalonga; Laura Sellart; German Ros; David Vazquez; Jiaolong Xu; Javier Marin; Azadeh S. Mozafari edit  url
openurl 
  Title Training my car to see using virtual worlds Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Image and Vision Computing Abbreviated Journal IMAVIS  
  Volume 38 Issue Pages 102-118  
  Keywords  
  Abstract (up) Computer vision technologies are at the core of different advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) and will play a key role in oncoming autonomous vehicles too. One of the main challenges for such technologies is to perceive the driving environment, i.e. to detect and track relevant driving information in a reliable manner (e.g. pedestrians in the vehicle route, free space to drive through). Nowadays it is clear that machine learning techniques are essential for developing such a visual perception for driving. In particular, the standard working pipeline consists of collecting data (i.e. on-board images), manually annotating the data (e.g. drawing bounding boxes around pedestrians), learning a discriminative data representation taking advantage of such annotations (e.g. a deformable part-based model, a deep convolutional neural network), and then assessing the reliability of such representation with the acquired data. In the last two decades most of the research efforts focused on representation learning (first, designing descriptors and learning classifiers; later doing it end-to-end). Hence, collecting data and, especially, annotating it, is essential for learning good representations. While this has been the case from the very beginning, only after the disruptive appearance of deep convolutional neural networks that it became a serious issue due to their data hungry nature. In this context, the problem is that manual data annotation is a tiresome work prone to errors. Accordingly, in the late 00’s we initiated a research line consisting of training visual models using photo-realistic computer graphics, especially focusing on assisted and autonomous driving. In this paper, we summarize such a work and show how it has become a new tendency with increasing acceptance.  
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  Notes ADAS; 600.118 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ LVS2017 Serial 2985  
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Author Fahad Shahbaz Khan; Muhammad Anwer Rao; Joost van de Weijer; Michael Felsberg; J.Laaksonen edit  doi
openurl 
  Title Compact color texture description for texture classification Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Pattern Recognition Letters Abbreviated Journal PRL  
  Volume 51 Issue Pages 16-22  
  Keywords  
  Abstract (up) Describing textures is a challenging problem in computer vision and pattern recognition. The classification problem involves assigning a category label to the texture class it belongs to. Several factors such as variations in scale, illumination and viewpoint make the problem of texture description extremely challenging. A variety of histogram based texture representations exists in literature.
However, combining multiple texture descriptors and assessing their complementarity is still an open research problem. In this paper, we first show that combining multiple local texture descriptors significantly improves the recognition performance compared to using a single best method alone. This
gain in performance is achieved at the cost of high-dimensional final image representation. To counter this problem, we propose to use an information-theoretic compression technique to obtain a compact texture description without any significant loss in accuracy. In addition, we perform a comprehensive
evaluation of pure color descriptors, popular in object recognition, for the problem of texture classification. Experiments are performed on four challenging texture datasets namely, KTH-TIPS-2a, KTH-TIPS-2b, FMD and Texture-10. The experiments clearly demonstrate that our proposed compact multi-texture approach outperforms the single best texture method alone. In all cases, discriminative color names outperforms other color features for texture classification. Finally, we show that combining discriminative color names with compact texture representation outperforms state-of-the-art methods by 7:8%, 4:3% and 5:0% on KTH-TIPS-2a, KTH-TIPS-2b and Texture-10 datasets respectively.
 
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  Notes LAMP; 600.068; 600.079;ADAS Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ KRW2015a Serial 2587  
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Author Alejandro Gonzalez Alzate; Zhijie Fang; Yainuvis Socarras; Joan Serrat; David Vazquez; Jiaolong Xu; Antonio Lopez edit   pdf
doi  openurl
  Title Pedestrian Detection at Day/Night Time with Visible and FIR Cameras: A Comparison Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Sensors Abbreviated Journal SENS  
  Volume 16 Issue 6 Pages 820  
  Keywords Pedestrian Detection; FIR  
  Abstract (up) Despite all the significant advances in pedestrian detection brought by computer vision for driving assistance, it is still a challenging problem. One reason is the extremely varying lighting conditions under which such a detector should operate, namely day and night time. Recent research has shown that the combination of visible and non-visible imaging modalities may increase detection accuracy, where the infrared spectrum plays a critical role. The goal of this paper is to assess the accuracy gain of different pedestrian models (holistic, part-based, patch-based) when training with images in the far infrared spectrum. Specifically, we want to compare detection accuracy on test images recorded at day and nighttime if trained (and tested) using (a) plain color images, (b) just infrared images and (c) both of them. In order to obtain results for the last item we propose an early fusion approach to combine features from both modalities. We base the evaluation on a new dataset we have built for this purpose as well as on the publicly available KAIST multispectral dataset.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1424-8220 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes ADAS; 600.085; 600.076; 600.082; 601.281 Approved no  
  Call Number ADAS @ adas @ GFS2016 Serial 2754  
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Author Alejandro Gonzalez Alzate; David Vazquez; Antonio Lopez; Jaume Amores edit   pdf
doi  openurl
  Title On-Board Object Detection: Multicue, Multimodal, and Multiview Random Forest of Local Experts Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication IEEE Transactions on cybernetics Abbreviated Journal Cyber  
  Volume 47 Issue 11 Pages 3980 - 3990  
  Keywords Multicue; multimodal; multiview; object detection  
  Abstract (up) Despite recent significant advances, object detection continues to be an extremely challenging problem in real scenarios. In order to develop a detector that successfully operates under these conditions, it becomes critical to leverage upon multiple cues, multiple imaging modalities, and a strong multiview (MV) classifier that accounts for different object views and poses. In this paper, we provide an extensive evaluation that gives insight into how each of these aspects (multicue, multimodality, and strong MV classifier) affect accuracy both individually and when integrated together. In the multimodality component, we explore the fusion of RGB and depth maps obtained by high-definition light detection and ranging, a type of modality that is starting to receive increasing attention. As our analysis reveals, although all the aforementioned aspects significantly help in improving the accuracy, the fusion of visible spectrum and depth information allows to boost the accuracy by a much larger margin. The resulting detector not only ranks among the top best performers in the challenging KITTI benchmark, but it is built upon very simple blocks that are easy to implement and computationally efficient.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2168-2267 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes ADAS; 600.085; 600.082; 600.076; 600.118 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ Serial 2810  
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Author Jiaolong Xu; David Vazquez; Antonio Lopez; Javier Marin; Daniel Ponsa edit   pdf
doi  isbn
openurl 
  Title Learning a Part-based Pedestrian Detector in Virtual World Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems Abbreviated Journal TITS  
  Volume 15 Issue 5 Pages 2121-2131  
  Keywords Domain Adaptation; Pedestrian Detection; Virtual Worlds  
  Abstract (up) Detecting pedestrians with on-board vision systems is of paramount interest for assisting drivers to prevent vehicle-to-pedestrian accidents. The core of a pedestrian detector is its classification module, which aims at deciding if a given image window contains a pedestrian. Given the difficulty of this task, many classifiers have been proposed during the last fifteen years. Among them, the so-called (deformable) part-based classifiers including multi-view modeling are usually top ranked in accuracy. Training such classifiers is not trivial since a proper aspect clustering and spatial part alignment of the pedestrian training samples are crucial for obtaining an accurate classifier. In this paper, first we perform automatic aspect clustering and part alignment by using virtual-world pedestrians, i.e., human annotations are not required. Second, we use a mixture-of-parts approach that allows part sharing among different aspects. Third, these proposals are integrated in a learning framework which also allows to incorporate real-world training data to perform domain adaptation between virtual- and real-world cameras. Overall, the obtained results on four popular on-board datasets show that our proposal clearly outperforms the state-of-the-art deformable part-based detector known as latent SVM.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1931-0587 ISBN 978-1-4673-2754-1 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes ADAS; 600.076 Approved no  
  Call Number ADAS @ adas @ XVL2014 Serial 2433  
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