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Author Arnau Baro edit  isbn
openurl 
  Title Reading Music Systems: From Deep Optical Music Recognition to Contextual Methods Type Book Whole
  Year 2022 Publication PhD Thesis, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona-CVC Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The transcription of sheet music into some machine-readable format can be carried out manually. However, the complexity of music notation inevitably leads to burdensome software for music score editing, which makes the whole process
very time-consuming and prone to errors. Consequently, automatic transcription
systems for musical documents represent interesting tools.
Document analysis is the subject that deals with the extraction and processing
of documents through image and pattern recognition. It is a branch of computer
vision. Taking music scores as source, the field devoted to address this task is
known as Optical Music Recognition (OMR). Typically, an OMR system takes an
image of a music score and automatically extracts its content into some symbolic
structure such as MEI or MusicXML.
In this dissertation, we have investigated different methods for recognizing a
single staff section (e.g. scores for violin, flute, etc.), much in the same way as most text recognition research focuses on recognizing words appearing in a given line image. These methods are based in two different methodologies. On the one hand, we present two methods based on Recurrent Neural Networks, in particular, the
Long Short-Term Memory Neural Network. On the other hand, a method based on Sequence to Sequence models is detailed.
Music context is needed to improve the OMR results, just like language models
and dictionaries help in handwriting recognition. For example, syntactical rules
and grammars could be easily defined to cope with the ambiguities in the rhythm.
In music theory, for example, the time signature defines the amount of beats per
bar unit. Thus, in the second part of this dissertation, different methodologies
have been investigated to improve the OMR recognition. We have explored three
different methods: (a) a graphic tree-structure representation, Dendrograms, that
joins, at each level, its primitives following a set of rules, (b) the incorporation of Language Models to model the probability of a sequence of tokens, and (c) graph neural networks to analyze the music scores to avoid meaningless relationships between music primitives.
Finally, to train all these methodologies, and given the method-specificity of
the datasets in the literature, we have created four different music datasets. Two of them are synthetic with a modern or old handwritten appearance, whereas the
other two are real handwritten scores, being one of them modern and the other
old.
 
  Address (up)  
  Corporate Author Thesis Ph.D. thesis  
  Publisher IMPRIMA Place of Publication Editor Alicia Fornes  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-84-124793-8-6 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes DAG; Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ Bar2022 Serial 3754  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Ali Furkan Biten edit  isbn
openurl 
  Title A Bitter-Sweet Symphony on Vision and Language: Bias and World Knowledge Type Book Whole
  Year 2022 Publication PhD Thesis, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona-CVC Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Vision and Language are broadly regarded as cornerstones of intelligence. Even though language and vision have different aims – language having the purpose of communication, transmission of information and vision having the purpose of constructing mental representations around us to navigate and interact with objects – they cooperate and depend on one another in many tasks we perform effortlessly. This reliance is actively being studied in various Computer Vision tasks, e.g. image captioning, visual question answering, image-sentence retrieval, phrase grounding, just to name a few. All of these tasks share the inherent difficulty of the aligning the two modalities, while being robust to language
priors and various biases existing in the datasets. One of the ultimate goal for vision and language research is to be able to inject world knowledge while getting rid of the biases that come with the datasets. In this thesis, we mainly focus on two vision and language tasks, namely Image Captioning and Scene-Text Visual Question Answering (STVQA).
In both domains, we start by defining a new task that requires the utilization of world knowledge and in both tasks, we find that the models commonly employed are prone to biases that exist in the data. Concretely, we introduce new tasks and discover several problems that impede performance at each level and provide remedies or possible solutions in each chapter: i) We define a new task to move beyond Image Captioning to Image Interpretation that can utilize Named Entities in the form of world knowledge. ii) We study the object hallucination problem in classic Image Captioning systems and develop an architecture-agnostic solution. iii) We define a sub-task of Visual Question Answering that requires reading the text in the image (STVQA), where we highlight the limitations of current models. iv) We propose an architecture for the STVQA task that can point to the answer in the image and show how to combine it with classic VQA models. v) We show how far language can get us in STVQA and discover yet another bias which causes the models to disregard the image while doing Visual Question Answering.
 
  Address (up)  
  Corporate Author Thesis Ph.D. thesis  
  Publisher IMPRIMA Place of Publication Editor Dimosthenis Karatzas;Lluis Gomez  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-84-124793-5-5 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes DAG Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ Bit2022 Serial 3755  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Andres Mafla edit  isbn
openurl 
  Title Leveraging Scene Text Information for Image Interpretation Type Book Whole
  Year 2022 Publication PhD Thesis, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona-CVC Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Until recently, most computer vision models remained illiterate, largely ignoring the semantically rich and explicit information contained in scene text. Recent progress in scene text detection and recognition has recently allowed exploring its role in a diverse set of open computer vision problems, e.g. image classification, image-text retrieval, image captioning, and visual question answering to name a few. The explicit semantics of scene text closely requires specific modeling similar to language. However, scene text is a particular signal that has to be interpreted according to a comprehensive perspective that encapsulates all the visual cues in an image. Incorporating this information is a straightforward task for humans, but if we are unfamiliar with a language or scripture, achieving a complete world understanding is impossible (e.a. visiting a foreign country with a different alphabet). Despite the importance of scene text, modeling it requires considering the several ways in which scene text interacts with an image, processing and fusing an additional modality. In this thesis, we mainly focus
on two tasks, scene text-based fine-grained image classification, and cross-modal retrieval. In both studied tasks we identify existing limitations in current approaches and propose plausible solutions. Concretely, in each chapter: i) We define a compact way to embed scene text that generalizes to unseen words at training time while performing in real-time. ii) We incorporate the previously learned scene text embedding to create an image-level descriptor that overcomes optical character recognition (OCR) errors which is well-suited to the fine-grained image classification task. iii) We design a region-level reasoning network that learns the interaction through semantics among salient visual regions and scene text instances. iv) We employ scene text information in image-text matching and introduce the Scene Text Aware Cross-Modal retrieval StacMR task. We gather a dataset that incorporates scene text and design a model suited for the newly studied modality. v) We identify the drawbacks of current retrieval metrics in cross-modal retrieval. An image captioning metric is proposed as a way of better evaluating semantics in retrieved results. Ample experimentation shows that incorporating such semantics into a model yields better semantic results while
requiring significantly less data to converge.
 
  Address (up)  
  Corporate Author Thesis Ph.D. thesis  
  Publisher IMPRIMA Place of Publication Editor Dimosthenis Karatzas;Lluis Gomez  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-84-124793-6-2 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes DAG Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ Maf2022 Serial 3756  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Mohamed Ali Souibgui edit  isbn
openurl 
  Title Document Image Enhancement and Recognition in Low Resource Scenarios: Application to Ciphers and Handwritten Text Type Book Whole
  Year 2022 Publication PhD Thesis, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona-CVC Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract In this thesis, we propose different contributions with the goal of enhancing and recognizing historical handwritten document images, especially the ones with rare scripts, such as cipher documents.
In the first part, some effective end-to-end models for Document Image Enhancement (DIE) using deep learning models were presented. First, Generative Adversarial Networks (cGAN) for different tasks (document clean-up, binarization, deblurring, and watermark removal) were explored. Next, we further improve the results by recovering the degraded document images into a clean and readable form by integrating a text recognizer into the cGAN model to promote the generated document image to be more readable. Afterward, we present a new encoder-decoder architecture based on vision transformers to enhance both machine-printed and handwritten document images, in an end-to-end fashion.
The second part of the thesis addresses Handwritten Text Recognition (HTR) in low resource scenarios, i.e. when only few labeled training data is available. We propose novel methods for recognizing ciphers with rare scripts. First, a few-shot object detection based method was proposed. Then, we incorporate a progressive learning strategy that automatically assignspseudo-labels to a set of unlabeled data to reduce the human labor of annotating few pages while maintaining the good performance of the model. Secondly, a data generation technique based on Bayesian Program Learning (BPL) is proposed to overcome the lack of data in such rare scripts. Thirdly, we propose a Text-Degradation Invariant Auto Encoder (Text-DIAE). This latter self-supervised model is designed to tackle two tasks, text recognition and document image enhancement. The proposed model does not exhibit limitations of previous state-of-the-art methods based on contrastive losses, while at the same time, it requires substantially fewer data samples to converge.
In the third part of the thesis, we analyze, from the user perspective, the usage of HTR systems in low resource scenarios. This contrasts with the usual research on HTR, which often focuses on technical aspects only and rarely devotes efforts on implementing software tools for scholars in Humanities.
 
  Address (up)  
  Corporate Author Thesis Ph.D. thesis  
  Publisher IMPRIMA Place of Publication Editor Alicia Fornes;Yousri Kessentini  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-84-124793-8-6 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes DAG Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ Sou2022 Serial 3757  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Andrea Gemelli; Sanket Biswas; Enrico Civitelli; Josep Llados; Simone Marinai edit   pdf
url  doi
isbn  openurl
  Title Doc2Graph: A Task Agnostic Document Understanding Framework Based on Graph Neural Networks Type Conference Article
  Year 2022 Publication 17th European Conference on Computer Vision Workshops Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 13804 Issue Pages 329–344  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Geometric Deep Learning has recently attracted significant interest in a wide range of machine learning fields, including document analysis. The application of Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) has become crucial in various document-related tasks since they can unravel important structural patterns, fundamental in key information extraction processes. Previous works in the literature propose task-driven models and do not take into account the full power of graphs. We propose Doc2Graph, a task-agnostic document understanding framework based on a GNN model, to solve different tasks given different types of documents. We evaluated our approach on two challenging datasets for key information extraction in form understanding, invoice layout analysis and table detection.  
  Address (up)  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title LNCS  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-3-031-25068-2 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference ECCV-TiE  
  Notes DAG; 600.162; 600.140; 110.312 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ GBC2022 Serial 3795  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Kunal Biswas; Palaiahnakote Shivakumara; Umapada Pal; Tong Lu; Michel Blumenstein; Josep Llados edit  url
openurl 
  Title Classification of aesthetic natural scene images using statistical and semantic features Type Journal Article
  Year 2023 Publication Multimedia Tools and Applications Abbreviated Journal MTAP  
  Volume 82 Issue 9 Pages 13507-13532  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Aesthetic image analysis is essential for improving the performance of multimedia image retrieval systems, especially from a repository of social media and multimedia content stored on mobile devices. This paper presents a novel method for classifying aesthetic natural scene images by studying the naturalness of image content using statistical features, and reading text in the images using semantic features. Unlike existing methods that focus only on image quality with human information, the proposed approach focuses on image features as well as text-based semantic features without human intervention to reduce the gap between subjectivity and objectivity in the classification. The aesthetic classes considered in this work are (i) Very Pleasant, (ii) Pleasant, (iii) Normal and (iv) Unpleasant. The naturalness is represented by features of focus, defocus, perceived brightness, perceived contrast, blurriness and noisiness, while semantics are represented by text recognition, description of the images and labels of images, profile pictures, and banner images. Furthermore, a deep learning model is proposed in a novel way to fuse statistical and semantic features for the classification of aesthetic natural scene images. Experiments on our own dataset and the standard datasets demonstrate that the proposed approach achieves 92.74%, 88.67% and 83.22% average classification rates on our own dataset, AVA dataset and CUHKPQ dataset, respectively. Furthermore, a comparative study of the proposed model with the existing methods shows that the proposed method is effective for the classification of aesthetic social media images.  
  Address (up)  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes DAG Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ BSP2023 Serial 3873  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Ali Furkan Biten; Ruben Tito; Lluis Gomez; Ernest Valveny; Dimosthenis Karatzas edit   pdf
url  openurl
  Title OCR-IDL: OCR Annotations for Industry Document Library Dataset Type Conference Article
  Year 2022 Publication ECCV Workshop on Text in Everything Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Pretraining has proven successful in Document Intelligence tasks where deluge of documents are used to pretrain the models only later to be finetuned on downstream tasks. One of the problems of the pretraining approaches is the inconsistent usage of pretraining data with different OCR engines leading to incomparable results between models. In other words, it is not obvious whether the performance gain is coming from diverse usage of amount of data and distinct OCR engines or from the proposed models. To remedy the problem, we make public the OCR annotations for IDL documents using commercial OCR engine given their superior performance over open source OCR models. The contributed dataset (OCR-IDL) has an estimated monetary value over 20K US$. It is our hope that OCR-IDL can be a starting point for future works on Document Intelligence. All of our data and its collection process with the annotations can be found in this https URL.  
  Address (up)  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference ECCV  
  Notes DAG; no proj Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ BTG2022 Serial 3817  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Ruben Tito; Dimosthenis Karatzas; Ernest Valveny edit   pdf
doi  openurl
  Title Hierarchical multimodal transformers for Multi-Page DocVQA Type Journal Article
  Year 2023 Publication Pattern Recognition Abbreviated Journal PR  
  Volume 144 Issue Pages 109834  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Document Visual Question Answering (DocVQA) refers to the task of answering questions from document images. Existing work on DocVQA only considers single-page documents. However, in real scenarios documents are mostly composed of multiple pages that should be processed altogether. In this work we extend DocVQA to the multi-page scenario. For that, we first create a new dataset, MP-DocVQA, where questions are posed over multi-page documents instead of single pages. Second, we propose a new hierarchical method, Hi-VT5, based on the T5 architecture, that overcomes the limitations of current methods to process long multi-page documents. The proposed method is based on a hierarchical transformer architecture where the encoder summarizes the most relevant information of every page and then, the decoder takes this summarized information to generate the final answer. Through extensive experimentation, we demonstrate that our method is able, in a single stage, to answer the questions and provide the page that contains the relevant information to find the answer, which can be used as a kind of explainability measure.  
  Address (up)  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISSN 0031-3203 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes DAG; 600.155; 600.121 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ TKV2023 Serial 3825  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Souhail Bakkali; Zuheng Ming; Mickael Coustaty; Marçal Rusiñol; Oriol Ramos Terrades edit   pdf
doi  openurl
  Title VLCDoC: Vision-Language Contrastive Pre-Training Model for Cross-Modal Document Classification Type Journal Article
  Year 2023 Publication Pattern Recognition Abbreviated Journal PR  
  Volume 139 Issue Pages 109419  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Multimodal learning from document data has achieved great success lately as it allows to pre-train semantically meaningful features as a prior into a learnable downstream approach. In this paper, we approach the document classification problem by learning cross-modal representations through language and vision cues, considering intra- and inter-modality relationships. Instead of merging features from different modalities into a common representation space, the proposed method exploits high-level interactions and learns relevant semantic information from effective attention flows within and across modalities. The proposed learning objective is devised between intra- and inter-modality alignment tasks, where the similarity distribution per task is computed by contracting positive sample pairs while simultaneously contrasting negative ones in the common feature representation space}. Extensive experiments on public document classification datasets demonstrate the effectiveness and the generalization capacity of our model on both low-scale and large-scale datasets.  
  Address (up)  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISSN 0031-3203 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes DAG; 600.140; 600.121 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ BMC2023 Serial 3826  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Ruben Tito; Dimosthenis Karatzas; Ernest Valveny edit   pdf
url  openurl
  Title Hierarchical multimodal transformers for Multipage DocVQA Type Miscellaneous
  Year 2023 Publication arxiv Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract  
  Address (up)  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes DAG Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ TKV2023 Serial 3836  
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