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Author Akhil Gurram; Ahmet Faruk Tuna; Fengyi Shen; Onay Urfalioglu; Antonio Lopez edit   pdf
doi  openurl
  Title Monocular Depth Estimation through Virtual-world Supervision and Real-world SfM Self-Supervision Type Journal Article
  Year 2021 Publication IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems Abbreviated Journal TITS  
  Volume Issue (up) Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Depth information is essential for on-board perception in autonomous driving and driver assistance. Monocular depth estimation (MDE) is very appealing since it allows for appearance and depth being on direct pixelwise correspondence without further calibration. Best MDE models are based on Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) trained in a supervised manner, i.e., assuming pixelwise ground truth (GT). Usually, this GT is acquired at training time through a calibrated multi-modal suite of sensors. However, also using only a monocular system at training time is cheaper and more scalable. This is possible by relying on structure-from-motion (SfM) principles to generate self-supervision. Nevertheless, problems of camouflaged objects, visibility changes, static-camera intervals, textureless areas, and scale ambiguity, diminish the usefulness of such self-supervision. In this paper, we perform monocular depth estimation by virtual-world supervision (MonoDEVS) and real-world SfM self-supervision. We compensate the SfM self-supervision limitations by leveraging virtual-world images with accurate semantic and depth supervision and addressing the virtual-to-real domain gap. Our MonoDEVSNet outperforms previous MDE CNNs trained on monocular and even stereo sequences.  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
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  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes ADAS; 600.118 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ GTS2021 Serial 3598  
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Author Gabriel Villalonga; Antonio Lopez edit   pdf
doi  openurl
  Title Co-Training for On-Board Deep Object Detection Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication IEEE Access Abbreviated Journal ACCESS  
  Volume Issue (up) Pages 194441 - 194456  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Providing ground truth supervision to train visual models has been a bottleneck over the years, exacerbated by domain shifts which degenerate the performance of such models. This was the case when visual tasks relied on handcrafted features and shallow machine learning and, despite its unprecedented performance gains, the problem remains open within the deep learning paradigm due to its data-hungry nature. Best performing deep vision-based object detectors are trained in a supervised manner by relying on human-labeled bounding boxes which localize class instances (i.e. objects) within the training images. Thus, object detection is one of such tasks for which human labeling is a major bottleneck. In this article, we assess co-training as a semi-supervised learning method for self-labeling objects in unlabeled images, so reducing the human-labeling effort for developing deep object detectors. Our study pays special attention to a scenario involving domain shift; in particular, when we have automatically generated virtual-world images with object bounding boxes and we have real-world images which are unlabeled. Moreover, we are particularly interested in using co-training for deep object detection in the context of driver assistance systems and/or self-driving vehicles. Thus, using well-established datasets and protocols for object detection in these application contexts, we will show how co-training is a paradigm worth to pursue for alleviating object labeling, working both alone and together with task-agnostic domain adaptation.  
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  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes ADAS; 600.118 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ ViL2020 Serial 3488  
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Author Yi Xiao; Felipe Codevilla; Akhil Gurram; Onay Urfalioglu; Antonio Lopez edit   pdf
url  doi
openurl 
  Title Multimodal end-to-end autonomous driving Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems Abbreviated Journal TITS  
  Volume Issue (up) Pages 1-11  
  Keywords  
  Abstract A crucial component of an autonomous vehicle (AV) is the artificial intelligence (AI) is able to drive towards a desired destination. Today, there are different paradigms addressing the development of AI drivers. On the one hand, we find modular pipelines, which divide the driving task into sub-tasks such as perception and maneuver planning and control. On the other hand, we find end-to-end driving approaches that try to learn a direct mapping from input raw sensor data to vehicle control signals. The later are relatively less studied, but are gaining popularity since they are less demanding in terms of sensor data annotation. This paper focuses on end-to-end autonomous driving. So far, most proposals relying on this paradigm assume RGB images as input sensor data. However, AVs will not be equipped only with cameras, but also with active sensors providing accurate depth information (e.g., LiDARs). Accordingly, this paper analyses whether combining RGB and depth modalities, i.e. using RGBD data, produces better end-to-end AI drivers than relying on a single modality. We consider multimodality based on early, mid and late fusion schemes, both in multisensory and single-sensor (monocular depth estimation) settings. Using the CARLA simulator and conditional imitation learning (CIL), we show how, indeed, early fusion multimodality outperforms single-modality.  
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  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes ADAS Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ XCG2020 Serial 3490  
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Author Sudeep Katakol; Basem Elbarashy; Luis Herranz; Joost Van de Weijer; Antonio Lopez edit   pdf
url  doi
openurl 
  Title Distributed Learning and Inference with Compressed Images Type Journal Article
  Year 2021 Publication IEEE Transactions on Image Processing Abbreviated Journal TIP  
  Volume 30 Issue (up) Pages 3069 - 3083  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Modern computer vision requires processing large amounts of data, both while training the model and/or during inference, once the model is deployed. Scenarios where images are captured and processed in physically separated locations are increasingly common (e.g. autonomous vehicles, cloud computing). In addition, many devices suffer from limited resources to store or transmit data (e.g. storage space, channel capacity). In these scenarios, lossy image compression plays a crucial role to effectively increase the number of images collected under such constraints. However, lossy compression entails some undesired degradation of the data that may harm the performance of the downstream analysis task at hand, since important semantic information may be lost in the process. Moreover, we may only have compressed images at training time but are able to use original images at inference time, or vice versa, and in such a case, the downstream model suffers from covariate shift. In this paper, we analyze this phenomenon, with a special focus on vision-based perception for autonomous driving as a paradigmatic scenario. We see that loss of semantic information and covariate shift do indeed exist, resulting in a drop in performance that depends on the compression rate. In order to address the problem, we propose dataset restoration, based on image restoration with generative adversarial networks (GANs). Our method is agnostic to both the particular image compression method and the downstream task; and has the advantage of not adding additional cost to the deployed models, which is particularly important in resource-limited devices. The presented experiments focus on semantic segmentation as a challenging use case, cover a broad range of compression rates and diverse datasets, and show how our method is able to significantly alleviate the negative effects of compression on the downstream visual task.  
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  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes LAMP; ADAS; 600.120; 600.118 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ KEH2021 Serial 3543  
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Author Carme Julia; Angel Sappa; Felipe Lumbreras; Joan Serrat; Antonio Lopez edit   pdf
doi  openurl
  Title Predicting Missing Ratings in Recommender Systems: Adapted Factorization Approach Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication International Journal of Electronic Commerce Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 14 Issue (up) 1 Pages 89-108  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The paper presents a factorization-based approach to make predictions in recommender systems. These systems are widely used in electronic commerce to help customers find products according to their preferences. Taking into account the customer's ratings of some products available in the system, the recommender system tries to predict the ratings the customer would give to other products in the system. The proposed factorization-based approach uses all the information provided to compute the predicted ratings, in the same way as approaches based on Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). The main advantage of this technique versus SVD-based approaches is that it can deal with missing data. It also has a smaller computational cost. Experimental results with public data sets are provided to show that the proposed adapted factorization approach gives better predicted ratings than a widely used SVD-based approach.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1086-4415 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes ADAS Approved no  
  Call Number ADAS @ adas @ JSL2009b Serial 1237  
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Author Carme Julia; Angel Sappa; Felipe Lumbreras; Joan Serrat; Antonio Lopez edit   pdf
doi  openurl
  Title An Iterative Multiresolution Scheme for SFM with Missing Data: single and multiple object scenes Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Image and Vision Computing Abbreviated Journal IMAVIS  
  Volume 28 Issue (up) 1 Pages 164-176  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Most of the techniques proposed for tackling the Structure from Motion problem (SFM) cannot deal with high percentages of missing data in the matrix of trajectories. Furthermore, an additional problem should be faced up when working with multiple object scenes: the rank of the matrix of trajectories should be estimated. This paper presents an iterative multiresolution scheme for SFM with missing data to be used in both the single and multiple object cases. The proposed scheme aims at recovering missing entries in the original input matrix. The objective is to improve the results by applying a factorization technique to the partially or totally filled in matrix instead of to the original input one. Experimental results obtained with synthetic and real data sequences, containing single and multiple objects, are presented to show the viability of the proposed approach.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0262-8856 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes ADAS Approved no  
  Call Number ADAS @ adas @ JSL2010 Serial 1278  
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Author Jose Manuel Alvarez; Theo Gevers; Antonio Lopez edit   pdf
doi  openurl
  Title Learning photometric invariance for object detection Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication International Journal of Computer Vision Abbreviated Journal IJCV  
  Volume 90 Issue (up) 1 Pages 45-61  
  Keywords road detection  
  Abstract Impact factor: 3.508 (the last available from JCR2009SCI). Position 4/103 in the category Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence. Quartile
Color is a powerful visual cue in many computer vision applications such as image segmentation and object recognition. However, most of the existing color models depend on the imaging conditions that negatively affect the performance of the task at hand. Often, a reflection model (e.g., Lambertian or dichromatic reflectance) is used to derive color invariant models. However, this approach may be too restricted to model real-world scenes in which different reflectance mechanisms can hold simultaneously.
Therefore, in this paper, we aim to derive color invariance by learning from color models to obtain diversified color invariant ensembles. First, a photometrical orthogonal and non-redundant color model set is computed composed of both color variants and invariants. Then, the proposed method combines these color models to arrive at a diversified color ensemble yielding a proper balance between invariance (repeatability) and discriminative power (distinctiveness). To achieve this, our fusion method uses a multi-view approach to minimize the estimation error. In this way, the proposed method is robust to data uncertainty and produces properly diversified color invariant ensembles. Further, the proposed method is extended to deal with temporal data by predicting the evolution of observations over time.
Experiments are conducted on three different image datasets to validate the proposed method. Both the theoretical and experimental results show that the method is robust against severe variations in imaging conditions. The method is not restricted to a certain reflection model or parameter tuning, and outperforms state-of-the-art detection techniques in the field of object, skin and road recognition. Considering sequential data, the proposed method (extended to deal with future observations) outperforms the other methods
 
  Address  
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  Publisher Springer US Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0920-5691 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes ADAS;ISE Approved no  
  Call Number ADAS @ adas @ AGL2010c Serial 1451  
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Author Jose Manuel Alvarez; Antonio Lopez edit   pdf
openurl 
  Title Road Detection Based on Illuminant Invariance Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems Abbreviated Journal TITS  
  Volume 12 Issue (up) 1 Pages 184-193  
  Keywords road detection  
  Abstract By using an onboard camera, it is possible to detect the free road surface ahead of the ego-vehicle. Road detection is of high relevance for autonomous driving, road departure warning, and supporting driver-assistance systems such as vehicle and pedestrian detection. The key for vision-based road detection is the ability to classify image pixels as belonging or not to the road surface. Identifying road pixels is a major challenge due to the intraclass variability caused by lighting conditions. A particularly difficult scenario appears when the road surface has both shadowed and nonshadowed areas. Accordingly, we propose a novel approach to vision-based road detection that is robust to shadows. The novelty of our approach relies on using a shadow-invariant feature space combined with a model-based classifier. The model is built online to improve the adaptability of the algorithm to the current lighting and the presence of other vehicles in the scene. The proposed algorithm works in still images and does not depend on either road shape or temporal restrictions. Quantitative and qualitative experiments on real-world road sequences with heavy traffic and shadows show that the method is robust to shadows and lighting variations. Moreover, the proposed method provides the highest performance when compared with hue-saturation-intensity (HSI)-based algorithms.  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes ADAS Approved no  
  Call Number ADAS @ adas @ AlL2011 Serial 1456  
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Author Aura Hernandez-Sabate; Debora Gil; Jaume Garcia; Enric Marti edit   pdf
doi  openurl
  Title Image-based Cardiac Phase Retrieval in Intravascular Ultrasound Sequences Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control Abbreviated Journal T-UFFC  
  Volume 58 Issue (up) 1 Pages 60-72  
  Keywords 3-D exploring; ECG; band-pass filter; cardiac motion; cardiac phase retrieval; coronary arteries; electrocardiogram signal; image intensity local mean evolution; image-based cardiac phase retrieval; in vivo pullbacks acquisition; intravascular ultrasound sequences; longitudinal motion; signal extrema; time 36 ms; band-pass filters; biomedical ultrasonics; cardiovascular system; electrocardiography; image motion analysis; image retrieval; image sequences; medical image processing; ultrasonic imaging  
  Abstract Longitudinal motion during in vivo pullbacks acquisition of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) sequences is a major artifact for 3-D exploring of coronary arteries. Most current techniques are based on the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal to obtain a gated pullback without longitudinal motion by using specific hardware or the ECG signal itself. We present an image-based approach for cardiac phase retrieval from coronary IVUS sequences without an ECG signal. A signal reflecting cardiac motion is computed by exploring the image intensity local mean evolution. The signal is filtered by a band-pass filter centered at the main cardiac frequency. Phase is retrieved by computing signal extrema. The average frame processing time using our setup is 36 ms. Comparison to manually sampled sequences encourages a deeper study comparing them to ECG signals.  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0885-3010 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes IAM;ADAS Approved no  
  Call Number IAM @ iam @ HGG2011 Serial 1546  
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Author Enric Marti; Carme Julia; Debora Gil edit  doi
openurl 
  Title A PBL Experience in the Teaching of Computer Graphics Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Computer Graphics Forum Abbreviated Journal CGF  
  Volume 25 Issue (up) 1 Pages 95-103  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Project-Based Learning (PBL) is an educational strategy to improve student’s learning capability that, in recent years, has had a progressive acceptance in undergraduate studies. This methodology is based on solving a problem or project in a student working group. In this way, PBL focuses on learning the necessary tools to correctly find a solution to given problems. Since the learning initiative is transferred to the student, the PBL method promotes students own abilities. This allows a better assessment of the true workload that carries out the student in the subject. It follows that the methodology conforms to the guidelines of the Bologna document, which quantifies the student workload in a subject by means of the European credit transfer system (ECTS). PBL is currently applied in undergraduate studies needing strong practical training such as medicine, nursing or law sciences. Although this is also the case in engineering studies, amazingly, few experiences have been reported. In this paper we propose to use PBL in the educational organization of the Computer Graphics subjects in the Computer Science degree. Our PBL project focuses in the development of a C++ graphical environment based on the OpenGL libraries for visualization and handling of different graphical objects. The starting point is a basic skeleton that already includes lighting functions, perspective projection with mouse interaction to change the point of view and three predefined objects. Students have to complete this skeleton by adding their own functions to solve the project. A total number of 10 projects have been proposed and successfully solved. The exercises range from human face rendering to articulated objects, such as robot arms or puppets. In the present paper we extensively report the statement and educational objectives for two of the projects: solar system visualization and a chess game. We report our earlier educational experience based on the standard classroom theoretical, problem and practice sessions and the reasons that motivated searching for other learning methods. We have mainly chosen PBL because it improves the student learning initiative. We have applied the PBL educational model since the beginning of the second semester. The student’s feedback increases in his interest for the subject. We present a comparative study of the teachers’ and students’ workload between PBL and the classic teaching approach, which suggests that the workload increase in PBL is not as high as it seems.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Computer Graphics Forum Place of Publication Computer Vision CenterComputer Science Department Escola Tcnica Superior d’Enginyeria (UAB), Edifi Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes IAM;ADAS; Approved no  
  Call Number IAM @ iam @ MJG2006a Serial 1607  
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