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Author Miguel Angel Bautista; Oriol Pujol; Fernando De la Torre; Sergio Escalera edit   pdf
url  doi
openurl 
  Title Error-Correcting Factorization Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2018 Publication IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence Abbreviated Journal TPAMI  
  Volume 40 Issue Pages 2388-2401  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Error Correcting Output Codes (ECOC) is a successful technique in multi-class classification, which is a core problem in Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning. A major advantage of ECOC over other methods is that the multi- class problem is decoupled into a set of binary problems that are solved independently. However, literature defines a general error-correcting capability for ECOCs without analyzing how it distributes among classes, hindering a deeper analysis of pair-wise error-correction. To address these limitations this paper proposes an Error-Correcting Factorization (ECF) method, our contribution is three fold: (I) We propose a novel representation of the error-correction capability, called the design matrix, that enables us to build an ECOC on the basis of allocating correction to pairs of classes. (II) We derive the optimal code length of an ECOC using rank properties of the design matrix. (III) ECF is formulated as a discrete optimization problem, and a relaxed solution is found using an efficient constrained block coordinate descent approach. (IV) Enabled by the flexibility introduced with the design matrix we propose to allocate the error-correction on classes that are prone to confusion. Experimental results in several databases show that when allocating the error-correction to confusable classes ECF outperforms state-of-the-art approaches.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0162-8828 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes HuPBA; no menciona Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ BPT2018 Serial 3015  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Mohamed Ilyes Lakhal; Hakan Çevikalp; Sergio Escalera; Ferda Ofli edit  doi
openurl 
  Title Recurrent Neural Networks for Remote Sensing Image Classification Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2018 Publication IET Computer Vision Abbreviated Journal IETCV  
  Volume 12 Issue 7 Pages 1040 - 1045  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Automatically classifying an image has been a central problem in computer vision for decades. A plethora of models has been proposed, from handcrafted feature solutions to more sophisticated approaches such as deep learning. The authors address the problem of remote sensing image classification, which is an important problem to many real world applications. They introduce a novel deep recurrent architecture that incorporates high-level feature descriptors to tackle this challenging problem. Their solution is based on the general encoder–decoder framework. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to use a recurrent network structure on this task. The experimental results show that the proposed framework outperforms the previous works in the three datasets widely used in the literature. They have achieved a state-of-the-art accuracy rate of 97.29% on the UC Merced dataset.  
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  Notes HUPBA; no proj Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ LÇE2018 Serial 3119  
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Author Pau Rodriguez Lopez; Miguel Angel Bautista; Sergio Escalera; Jordi Gonzalez edit   pdf
url  doi
openurl 
  Title Beyond Oneshot Encoding: lower dimensional target embedding Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2018 Publication Image and Vision Computing Abbreviated Journal IMAVIS  
  Volume 75 Issue Pages 21-31  
  Keywords Error correcting output codes; Output embeddings; Deep learning; Computer vision  
  Abstract Target encoding plays a central role when learning Convolutional Neural Networks. In this realm, one-hot encoding is the most prevalent strategy due to its simplicity. However, this so widespread encoding schema assumes a flat label space, thus ignoring rich relationships existing among labels that can be exploited during training. In large-scale datasets, data does not span the full label space, but instead lies in a low-dimensional output manifold. Following this observation, we embed the targets into a low-dimensional space, drastically improving convergence speed while preserving accuracy. Our contribution is two fold: (i) We show that random projections of the label space are a valid tool to find such lower dimensional embeddings, boosting dramatically convergence rates at zero computational cost; and (ii) we propose a normalized eigenrepresentation of the class manifold that encodes the targets with minimal information loss, improving the accuracy of random projections encoding while enjoying the same convergence rates. Experiments on CIFAR-100, CUB200-2011, Imagenet, and MIT Places demonstrate that the proposed approach drastically improves convergence speed while reaching very competitive accuracy rates.  
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  Notes ISE; HuPBA; 600.098; 602.133; 602.121; 600.119 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ RBE2018 Serial 3120  
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Author Pichao Wang; Wanqing Li; Philip Ogunbona; Jun Wan; Sergio Escalera edit   pdf
url  openurl
  Title RGB-D-based Human Motion Recognition with Deep Learning: A Survey Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2018 Publication Computer Vision and Image Understanding Abbreviated Journal CVIU  
  Volume 171 Issue Pages 118-139  
  Keywords Human motion recognition; RGB-D data; Deep learning; Survey  
  Abstract Human motion recognition is one of the most important branches of human-centered research activities. In recent years, motion recognition based on RGB-D data has attracted much attention. Along with the development in artificial intelligence, deep learning techniques have gained remarkable success in computer vision. In particular, convolutional neural networks (CNN) have achieved great success for image-based tasks, and recurrent neural networks (RNN) are renowned for sequence-based problems. Specifically, deep learning methods based on the CNN and RNN architectures have been adopted for motion recognition using RGB-D data. In this paper, a detailed overview of recent advances in RGB-D-based motion recognition is presented. The reviewed methods are broadly categorized into four groups, depending on the modality adopted for recognition: RGB-based, depth-based, skeleton-based and RGB+D-based. As a survey focused on the application of deep learning to RGB-D-based motion recognition, we explicitly discuss the advantages and limitations of existing techniques. Particularly, we highlighted the methods of encoding spatial-temporal-structural information inherent in video sequence, and discuss potential directions for future research.  
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  Notes HUPBA; no proj Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ WLO2018 Serial 3123  
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Author Razieh Rastgoo; Kourosh Kiani; Sergio Escalera edit  doi
openurl 
  Title Multi-Modal Deep Hand Sign Language Recognition in Still Images Using Restricted Boltzmann Machine Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2018 Publication Entropy Abbreviated Journal ENTROPY  
  Volume 20 Issue 11 Pages 809  
  Keywords hand sign language; deep learning; restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM); multi-modal; profoundly deaf; noisy image  
  Abstract In this paper, a deep learning approach, Restricted Boltzmann Machine (RBM), is used to perform automatic hand sign language recognition from visual data. We evaluate how RBM, as a deep generative model, is capable of generating the distribution of the input data for an enhanced recognition of unseen data. Two modalities, RGB and Depth, are considered in the model input in three forms: original image, cropped image, and noisy cropped image. Five crops of the input image are used and the hand of these cropped images are detected using Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). After that, three types of the detected hand images are generated for each modality and input to RBMs. The outputs of the RBMs for two modalities are fused in another RBM in order to recognize the output sign label of the input image. The proposed multi-modal model is trained on all and part of the American alphabet and digits of four publicly available datasets. We also evaluate the robustness of the proposal against noise. Experimental results show that the proposed multi-modal model, using crops and the RBM fusing methodology, achieves state-of-the-art results on Massey University Gesture Dataset 2012, American Sign Language (ASL). and Fingerspelling Dataset from the University of Surrey’s Center for Vision, Speech and Signal Processing, NYU, and ASL Fingerspelling A datasets.  
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  Notes HUPBA; no proj Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ RKE2018 Serial 3198  
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