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Author M. Visani; Oriol Ramos Terrades; Salvatore Tabbone edit  doi
openurl 
  Title A Protocol to Characterize the Descriptive Power and the Complementarity of Shape Descriptors Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication International Journal on Document Analysis and Recognition Abbreviated Journal IJDAR  
  Volume 14 Issue 1 Pages 87-100  
  Keywords Document analysis; Shape descriptors; Symbol description; Performance characterization; Complementarity analysis  
  Abstract Most document analysis applications rely on the extraction of shape descriptors, which may be grouped into different categories, each category having its own advantages and drawbacks (O.R. Terrades et al. in Proceedings of ICDAR’07, pp. 227–231, 2007). In order to improve the richness of their description, many authors choose to combine multiple descriptors. Yet, most of the authors who propose a new descriptor content themselves with comparing its performance to the performance of a set of single state-of-the-art descriptors in a specific applicative context (e.g. symbol recognition, symbol spotting...). This results in a proliferation of the shape descriptors proposed in the literature. In this article, we propose an innovative protocol, the originality of which is to be as independent of the final application as possible and which relies on new quantitative and qualitative measures. We introduce two types of measures: while the measures of the first type are intended to characterize the descriptive power (in terms of uniqueness, distinctiveness and robustness towards noise) of a descriptor, the second type of measures characterizes the complementarity between multiple descriptors. Characterizing upstream the complementarity of shape descriptors is an alternative to the usual approach where the descriptors to be combined are selected by trial and error, considering the performance characteristics of the overall system. To illustrate the contribution of this protocol, we performed experimental studies using a set of descriptors and a set of symbols which are widely used by the community namely ART and SC descriptors and the GREC 2003 database.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes DAG; IF 1.091 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @VRT2011 Serial 1856  
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Author Alicia Fornes; Josep Llados; Gemma Sanchez; Xavier Otazu; Horst Bunke edit  doi
openurl 
  Title A Combination of Features for Symbol-Independent Writer Identification in Old Music Scores Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication International Journal on Document Analysis and Recognition Abbreviated Journal IJDAR  
  Volume 13 Issue 4 Pages 243-259  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The aim of writer identification is determining the writer of a piece of handwriting from a set of writers. In this paper, we present an architecture for writer identification in old handwritten music scores. Even though an important amount of music compositions contain handwritten text, the aim of our work is to use only music notation to determine the author. The main contribution is therefore the use of features extracted from graphical alphabets. Our proposal consists in combining the identification results of two different approaches, based on line and textural features. The steps of the ensemble architecture are the following. First of all, the music sheet is preprocessed for removing the staff lines. Then, music lines and texture images are generated for computing line features and textural features. Finally, the classification results are combined for identifying the writer. The proposed method has been tested on a database of old music scores from the seventeenth to nineteenth centuries, achieving a recognition rate of about 92% with 20 writers.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Springer-Verlag Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1433-2833 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes DAG; CAT;CIC Approved no  
  Call Number FLS2010b Serial 1319  
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Author Mathieu Nicolas Delalandre; Ernest Valveny; Tony Pridmore; Dimosthenis Karatzas edit  doi
openurl 
  Title Generation of Synthetic Documents for Performance Evaluation of Symbol Recognition & Spotting Systems Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication International Journal on Document Analysis and Recognition Abbreviated Journal IJDAR  
  Volume 13 Issue 3 Pages 187-207  
  Keywords  
  Abstract This paper deals with the topic of performance evaluation of symbol recognition & spotting systems. We propose here a new approach to the generation of synthetic graphics documents containing non-isolated symbols in a real context. This approach is based on the definition of a set of constraints that permit us to place the symbols on a pre-defined background according to the properties of a particular domain (architecture, electronics, engineering, etc.). In this way, we can obtain a large amount of images resembling real documents by simply defining the set of constraints and providing a few pre-defined backgrounds. As documents are synthetically generated, the groundtruth (the location and the label of every symbol) becomes automatically available. We have applied this approach to the generation of a large database of architectural drawings and electronic diagrams, which shows the flexibility of the system. Performance evaluation experiments of a symbol localization system show that our approach permits to generate documents with different features that are reflected in variation of localization results.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Springer-Verlag Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1433-2833 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes DAG Approved no  
  Call Number DAG @ dag @ DVP2010 Serial 1289  
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Author Alicia Fornes; Josep Llados; Gemma Sanchez; Dimosthenis Karatzas edit  doi
openurl 
  Title Rotation Invariant Hand-Drawn Symbol Recognition based on a Dynamic Time Warping Model Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication International Journal on Document Analysis and Recognition Abbreviated Journal IJDAR  
  Volume 13 Issue 3 Pages 229–241  
  Keywords  
  Abstract One of the major difficulties of handwriting symbol recognition is the high variability among symbols because of the different writer styles. In this paper, we introduce a robust approach for describing and recognizing hand-drawn symbols tolerant to these writer style differences. This method, which is invariant to scale and rotation, is based on the dynamic time warping (DTW) algorithm. The symbols are described by vector sequences, a variation of the DTW distance is used for computing the matching distance, and K-Nearest Neighbor is used to classify them. Our approach has been evaluated in two benchmarking scenarios consisting of hand-drawn symbols. Compared with state-of-the-art methods for symbol recognition, our method shows higher tolerance to the irregular deformations induced by hand-drawn strokes.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Springer-Verlag Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1433-2833 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes DAG; IF 2009: 1,213 Approved no  
  Call Number DAG @ dag @ FLS2010a Serial 1288  
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Author Josep Llados; Jaime Lopez-Krahe; Enric Marti edit   pdf
doi  openurl
  Title A system to understand hand-drawn floor plans using subgraph isomorphism and Hough transform Type Book Chapter
  Year 1997 Publication Machine Vision and Applications Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 10 Issue 3 Pages 150-158  
  Keywords Line drawings – Hough transform – Graph matching – CAD systems – Graphics recognition  
  Abstract Presently, man-machine interface development is a widespread research activity. A system to understand hand drawn architectural drawings in a CAD environment is presented in this paper. To understand a document, we have to identify its building elements and their structural properties. An attributed graph structure is chosen as a symbolic representation of the input document and the patterns to recognize in it. An inexact subgraph isomorphism procedure using relaxation labeling techniques is performed. In this paper we focus on how to speed up the matching. There is a building element, the walls, characterized by a hatching pattern. Using a straight line Hough transform (SLHT)-based method, we recognize this pattern, characterized by parallel straight lines, and remove from the input graph the edges belonging to this pattern. The isomorphism is then applied to the remainder of the input graph. When all the building elements have been recognized, the document is redrawn, correcting the inaccurate strokes obtained from a hand-drawn input.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes DAG;IAM Approved no  
  Call Number IAM @ iam @ LLM1997a Serial 1566  
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Author Lluis Pere de las Heras; Ernest Valveny; Gemma Sanchez edit  doi
isbn  openurl
  Title Unsupervised and Notation-Independent Wall Segmentation in Floor Plans Using a Combination of Statistical and Structural Strategies Type Book Chapter
  Year 2014 Publication Graphics Recognition. Current Trends and Challenges Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 8746 Issue Pages 109-121  
  Keywords Graphics recognition; Floor plan analysis; Object segmentation  
  Abstract In this paper we present a wall segmentation approach in floor plans that is able to work independently to the graphical notation, does not need any pre-annotated data for learning, and is able to segment multiple-shaped walls such as beams and curved-walls. This method results from the combination of the wall segmentation approaches [3, 5] presented recently by the authors. Firstly, potential straight wall segments are extracted in an unsupervised way similar to [3], but restricting even more the wall candidates considered in the original approach. Then, based on [5], these segments are used to learn the texture pattern of walls and spot the lost instances. The presented combination of both methods has been tested on 4 available datasets with different notations and compared qualitatively and quantitatively to the state-of-the-art applied on these collections. Additionally, some qualitative results on floor plans directly downloaded from the Internet are reported in the paper. The overall performance of the method demonstrates either its adaptability to different wall notations and shapes, and to document qualities and resolutions.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Springer Berlin Heidelberg Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title LNCS  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0302-9743 ISBN 978-3-662-44853-3 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes DAG; ADAS; 600.076; 600.077 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ HVS2014 Serial 2535  
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Author Klaus Broelemann; Anjan Dutta; Xiaoyi Jiang; Josep Llados edit   pdf
doi  isbn
openurl 
  Title Hierarchical Plausibility-Graphs for Symbol Spotting in Graphical Documents Type Book Chapter
  Year 2014 Publication Graphics Recognition. Current Trends and Challenges Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 8746 Issue Pages 25-37  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Graph representation of graphical documents often suffers from noise such as spurious nodes and edges, and their discontinuity. In general these errors occur during the low-level image processing viz. binarization, skeletonization, vectorization etc. Hierarchical graph representation is a nice and efficient way to solve this kind of problem by hierarchically merging node-node and node-edge depending on the distance. But the creation of hierarchical graph representing the graphical information often uses hard thresholds on the distance to create the hierarchical nodes (next state) of the lower nodes (or states) of a graph. As a result, the representation often loses useful information. This paper introduces plausibilities to the nodes of hierarchical graph as a function of distance and proposes a modified algorithm for matching subgraphs of the hierarchical graphs. The plausibility-annotated nodes help to improve the performance of the matching algorithm on two hierarchical structures. To show the potential of this approach, we conduct an experiment with the SESYD dataset.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Springer Berlin Heidelberg Place of Publication Editor Bart Lamiroy; Jean-Marc Ogier  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title LNCS  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0302-9743 ISBN 978-3-662-44853-3 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes DAG; 600.045; 600.056; 600.061; 600.077 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ BDJ2014 Serial 2699  
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Author Anjan Dutta; Josep Llados; Horst Bunke; Umapada Pal edit   pdf
doi  isbn
openurl 
  Title A Product Graph Based Method for Dual Subgraph Matching Applied to Symbol Spotting Type Book Chapter
  Year 2014 Publication Graphics Recognition. Current Trends and Challenges Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 8746 Issue Pages 7-11  
  Keywords Product graph; Dual edge graph; Subgraph matching; Random walks; Graph kernel  
  Abstract Product graph has been shown as a way for matching subgraphs. This paper reports the extension of the product graph methodology for subgraph matching applied to symbol spotting in graphical documents. Here we focus on the two major limitations of the previous version of the algorithm: (1) spurious nodes and edges in the graph representation and (2) inefficient node and edge attributes. To deal with noisy information of vectorized graphical documents, we consider a dual edge graph representation on the original graph representing the graphical information and the product graph is computed between the dual edge graphs of the pattern graph and the target graph. The dual edge graph with redundant edges is helpful for efficient and tolerating encoding of the structural information of the graphical documents. The adjacency matrix of the product graph locates the pair of similar edges of two operand graphs and exponentiating the adjacency matrix finds similar random walks of greater lengths. Nodes joining similar random walks between two graphs are found by combining different weighted exponentials of adjacency matrices. An experimental investigation reveals that the recall obtained by this approach is quite encouraging.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Springer Berlin Heidelberg Place of Publication Editor Bart Lamiroy; Jean-Marc Ogier  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title LNCS  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0302-9743 ISBN 978-3-662-44853-3 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes DAG; 600.077 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ DLB2014 Serial 2698  
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Author Alicia Fornes; V.C.Kieu; M. Visani; N.Journet; Anjan Dutta edit  doi
isbn  openurl
  Title The ICDAR/GREC 2013 Music Scores Competition: Staff Removal Type Book Chapter
  Year 2014 Publication Graphics Recognition. Current Trends and Challenges Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 8746 Issue Pages 207-220  
  Keywords Competition; Graphics recognition; Music scores; Writer identification; Staff removal  
  Abstract The first competition on music scores that was organized at ICDAR and GREC in 2011 awoke the interest of researchers, who participated in both staff removal and writer identification tasks. In this second edition, we focus on the staff removal task and simulate a real case scenario concerning old and degraded music scores. For this purpose, we have generated a new set of semi-synthetic images using two degradation models that we previously introduced: local noise and 3D distortions. In this extended paper we provide an extended description of the dataset, degradation models, evaluation metrics, the participant’s methods and the obtained results that could not be presented at ICDAR and GREC proceedings due to page limitations.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Springer Berlin Heidelberg Place of Publication Editor B.Lamiroy; J.-M. Ogier  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title LNCS  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0302-9743 ISBN 978-3-662-44853-3 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes DAG; 600.077; 600.061 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ FKV2014 Serial 2581  
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Author Lluis Pere de las Heras; David Fernandez; Alicia Fornes; Ernest Valveny; Gemma Sanchez; Josep Llados edit  doi
isbn  openurl
  Title Runlength Histogram Image Signature for Perceptual Retrieval of Architectural Floor Plans Type Book Chapter
  Year 2014 Publication Graphics Recognition. Current Trends and Challenges Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 8746 Issue Pages 135-146  
  Keywords Graphics recognition; Graphics retrieval; Image classification  
  Abstract This paper proposes a runlength histogram signature as a perceptual descriptor of architectural plans in a retrieval scenario. The style of an architectural drawing is characterized by the perception of lines, shapes and texture. Such visual stimuli are the basis for defining semantic concepts as space properties, symmetry, density, etc. We propose runlength histograms extracted in vertical, horizontal and diagonal directions as a characterization of line and space properties in floorplans, so it can be roughly associated to a description of walls and room structure. A retrieval application illustrates the performance of the proposed approach, where given a plan as a query, similar ones are obtained from a database. A ground truth based on human observation has been constructed to validate the hypothesis. Additional retrieval results on sketched building’s facades are reported qualitatively in this paper. Its good description and its adaptability to two different sketch drawings despite its simplicity shows the interest of the proposed approach and opens a challenging research line in graphics recognition.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Springer Berlin Heidelberg Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title LNCS  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0302-9743 ISBN 978-3-662-44853-3 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes DAG; ADAS; 600.045; 600.056; 600.061; 600.076; 600.077 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ HFF2014 Serial 2536  
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