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Author Hannes Mueller; Andre Groeger; Jonathan Hersh; Andrea Matranga; Joan Serrat edit   pdf
url  doi
openurl 
  Title Monitoring war destruction from space using machine learning Type Journal Article
  Year 2021 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal PNAS  
  Volume 118 Issue 23 Pages e2025400118  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Existing data on building destruction in conflict zones rely on eyewitness reports or manual detection, which makes it generally scarce, incomplete, and potentially biased. This lack of reliable data imposes severe limitations for media reporting, humanitarian relief efforts, human-rights monitoring, reconstruction initiatives, and academic studies of violent conflict. This article introduces an automated method of measuring destruction in high-resolution satellite images using deep-learning techniques combined with label augmentation and spatial and temporal smoothing, which exploit the underlying spatial and temporal structure of destruction. As a proof of concept, we apply this method to the Syrian civil war and reconstruct the evolution of damage in major cities across the country. Our approach allows generating destruction data with unprecedented scope, resolution, and frequency—and makes use of the ever-higher frequency at which satellite imagery becomes available.  
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  Notes ADAS; 600.118 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ MGH2021 Serial 3584  
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Author Idoia Ruiz; Joan Serrat edit  doi
openurl 
  Title Hierarchical Novelty Detection for Traffic Sign Recognition Type Journal Article
  Year 2022 Publication Sensors Abbreviated Journal SENS  
  Volume 22 Issue 12 Pages 4389  
  Keywords Novelty detection; hierarchical classification; deep learning; traffic sign recognition; autonomous driving; computer vision  
  Abstract Recent works have made significant progress in novelty detection, i.e., the problem of detecting samples of novel classes, never seen during training, while classifying those that belong to known classes. However, the only information this task provides about novel samples is that they are unknown. In this work, we leverage hierarchical taxonomies of classes to provide informative outputs for samples of novel classes. We predict their closest class in the taxonomy, i.e., its parent class. We address this problem, known as hierarchical novelty detection, by proposing a novel loss, namely Hierarchical Cosine Loss that is designed to learn class prototypes along with an embedding of discriminative features consistent with the taxonomy. We apply it to traffic sign recognition, where we predict the parent class semantics for new types of traffic signs. Our model beats state-of-the art approaches on two large scale traffic sign benchmarks, Mapillary Traffic Sign Dataset (MTSD) and Tsinghua-Tencent 100K (TT100K), and performs similarly on natural images benchmarks (AWA2, CUB). For TT100K and MTSD, our approach is able to detect novel samples at the correct nodes of the hierarchy with 81% and 36% of accuracy, respectively, at 80% known class accuracy.  
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  Notes ADAS; 600.154 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ RuS2022 Serial 3684  
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Author Jose Luis Gomez; Gabriel Villalonga; Antonio Lopez edit  url
openurl 
  Title Co-Training for Unsupervised Domain Adaptation of Semantic Segmentation Models Type Journal Article
  Year 2023 Publication Sensors – Special Issue on “Machine Learning for Autonomous Driving Perception and Prediction” Abbreviated Journal SENS  
  Volume 23 Issue 2 Pages 621  
  Keywords Domain adaptation; semi-supervised learning; Semantic segmentation; Autonomous driving  
  Abstract Semantic image segmentation is a central and challenging task in autonomous driving, addressed by training deep models. Since this training draws to a curse of human-based image labeling, using synthetic images with automatically generated labels together with unlabeled real-world images is a promising alternative. This implies to address an unsupervised domain adaptation (UDA) problem. In this paper, we propose a new co-training procedure for synth-to-real UDA of semantic
segmentation models. It consists of a self-training stage, which provides two domain-adapted models, and a model collaboration loop for the mutual improvement of these two models. These models are then used to provide the final semantic segmentation labels (pseudo-labels) for the real-world images. The overall
procedure treats the deep models as black boxes and drives their collaboration at the level of pseudo-labeled target images, i.e., neither modifying loss functions is required, nor explicit feature alignment. We test our proposal on standard synthetic and real-world datasets for on-board semantic segmentation. Our
procedure shows improvements ranging from ∼13 to ∼26 mIoU points over baselines, so establishing new state-of-the-art results.
 
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  Notes ADAS; no proj Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ GVL2023 Serial 3705  
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Author Aura Hernandez-Sabate; Jose Elias Yauri; Pau Folch; Miquel Angel Piera; Debora Gil edit  doi
openurl 
  Title Recognition of the Mental Workloads of Pilots in the Cockpit Using EEG Signals Type Journal Article
  Year 2022 Publication Applied Sciences Abbreviated Journal APPLSCI  
  Volume 12 Issue 5 Pages 2298  
  Keywords Cognitive states; Mental workload; EEG analysis; Neural networks; Multimodal data fusion  
  Abstract The commercial flightdeck is a naturally multi-tasking work environment, one in which interruptions are frequent come in various forms, contributing in many cases to aviation incident reports. Automatic characterization of pilots’ workloads is essential to preventing these kind of incidents. In addition, minimizing the physiological sensor network as much as possible remains both a challenge and a requirement. Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals have shown high correlations with specific cognitive and mental states, such as workload. However, there is not enough evidence in the literature to validate how well models generalize in cases of new subjects performing tasks with workloads similar to the ones included during the model’s training. In this paper, we propose a convolutional neural network to classify EEG features across different mental workloads in a continuous performance task test that partly measures working memory and working memory capacity. Our model is valid at the general population level and it is able to transfer task learning to pilot mental workload recognition in a simulated operational environment.  
  Address February 2022  
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  Notes IAM; ADAS; 600.139; 600.145; 600.118 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ HYF2022 Serial 3720  
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Author M. Altillawi; S. Li; S.M. Prakhya; Z. Liu; Joan Serrat edit  doi
openurl 
  Title Implicit Learning of Scene Geometry From Poses for Global Localization Type Journal Article
  Year 2024 Publication IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters Abbreviated Journal ROBOTAUTOMLET  
  Volume 9 Issue 2 Pages 955-962  
  Keywords Localization; Localization and mapping; Deep learning for visual perception; Visual learning  
  Abstract Global visual localization estimates the absolute pose of a camera using a single image, in a previously mapped area. Obtaining the pose from a single image enables many robotics and augmented/virtual reality applications. Inspired by latest advances in deep learning, many existing approaches directly learn and regress 6 DoF pose from an input image. However, these methods do not fully utilize the underlying scene geometry for pose regression. The challenge in monocular relocalization is the minimal availability of supervised training data, which is just the corresponding 6 DoF poses of the images. In this letter, we propose to utilize these minimal available labels (i.e., poses) to learn the underlying 3D geometry of the scene and use the geometry to estimate the 6 DoF camera pose. We present a learning method that uses these pose labels and rigid alignment to learn two 3D geometric representations ( X, Y, Z coordinates ) of the scene, one in camera coordinate frame and the other in global coordinate frame. Given a single image, it estimates these two 3D scene representations, which are then aligned to estimate a pose that matches the pose label. This formulation allows for the active inclusion of additional learning constraints to minimize 3D alignment errors between the two 3D scene representations, and 2D re-projection errors between the 3D global scene representation and 2D image pixels, resulting in improved localization accuracy. During inference, our model estimates the 3D scene geometry in camera and global frames and aligns them rigidly to obtain pose in real-time. We evaluate our work on three common visual localization datasets, conduct ablation studies, and show that our method exceeds state-of-the-art regression methods' pose accuracy on all datasets.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2377-3766 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes ADAS Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ Serial 3857  
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