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Author Zhijie Fang; Antonio Lopez edit  url
doi  openurl
  Title Intention Recognition of Pedestrians and Cyclists by 2D Pose Estimation Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems Abbreviated Journal TITS  
  Volume Issue Pages (up)  
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  Abstract Anticipating the intentions of vulnerable road users (VRUs) such as pedestrians and cyclists is critical for performing safe and comfortable driving maneuvers. This is the case for human driving and, thus, should be taken into account by systems providing any level of driving assistance, from advanced driver assistant systems (ADAS) to fully autonomous vehicles (AVs). In this paper, we show how the latest advances on monocular vision-based human pose estimation, i.e. those relying on deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), enable to recognize the intentions of such VRUs. In the case of cyclists, we assume that they follow traffic rules to indicate future maneuvers with arm signals. In the case of pedestrians, no indications can be assumed. Instead, we hypothesize that the walking pattern of a pedestrian allows to determine if he/she has the intention of crossing the road in the path of the ego-vehicle, so that the ego-vehicle must maneuver accordingly (e.g. slowing down or stopping). In this paper, we show how the same methodology can be used for recognizing pedestrians and cyclists' intentions. For pedestrians, we perform experiments on the JAAD dataset. For cyclists, we did not found an analogous dataset, thus, we created our own one by acquiring and annotating videos which we share with the research community. Overall, the proposed pipeline provides new state-of-the-art results on the intention recognition of VRUs.  
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  Notes ADAS; 600.118 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ FaL2019 Serial 3305  
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Author Akhil Gurram; Onay Urfalioglu; Ibrahim Halfaoui; Fahd Bouzaraa; Antonio Lopez edit  url
doi  openurl
  Title Semantic Monocular Depth Estimation Based on Artificial Intelligence Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine Abbreviated Journal ITSM  
  Volume Issue Pages (up)  
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  Abstract Depth estimation provides essential information to perform autonomous driving and driver assistance. A promising line of work consists of introducing additional semantic information about the traffic scene when training CNNs for depth estimation. In practice, this means that the depth data used for CNN training is complemented with images having pixel-wise semantic labels where the same raw training data is associated with both types of ground truth, i.e., depth and semantic labels. The main contribution of this paper is to show that this hard constraint can be circumvented, i.e., that we can train CNNs for depth estimation by leveraging the depth and semantic information coming from heterogeneous datasets. In order to illustrate the benefits of our approach, we combine KITTI depth and Cityscapes semantic segmentation datasets, outperforming state-of-the-art results on monocular depth estimation.  
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  Notes ADAS; 600.124; 600.118 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ GUH2019 Serial 3306  
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Author Yi Xiao; Felipe Codevilla; Akhil Gurram; Onay Urfalioglu; Antonio Lopez edit   pdf
url  doi
openurl 
  Title Multimodal end-to-end autonomous driving Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems Abbreviated Journal TITS  
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  Abstract A crucial component of an autonomous vehicle (AV) is the artificial intelligence (AI) is able to drive towards a desired destination. Today, there are different paradigms addressing the development of AI drivers. On the one hand, we find modular pipelines, which divide the driving task into sub-tasks such as perception and maneuver planning and control. On the other hand, we find end-to-end driving approaches that try to learn a direct mapping from input raw sensor data to vehicle control signals. The later are relatively less studied, but are gaining popularity since they are less demanding in terms of sensor data annotation. This paper focuses on end-to-end autonomous driving. So far, most proposals relying on this paradigm assume RGB images as input sensor data. However, AVs will not be equipped only with cameras, but also with active sensors providing accurate depth information (e.g., LiDARs). Accordingly, this paper analyses whether combining RGB and depth modalities, i.e. using RGBD data, produces better end-to-end AI drivers than relying on a single modality. We consider multimodality based on early, mid and late fusion schemes, both in multisensory and single-sensor (monocular depth estimation) settings. Using the CARLA simulator and conditional imitation learning (CIL), we show how, indeed, early fusion multimodality outperforms single-modality.  
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  Notes ADAS Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ XCG2020 Serial 3490  
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Author Angel Sappa; P. Carvajal; Cristhian A. Aguilera-Carrasco; Miguel Oliveira; Dennis Romero; Boris Vintimilla edit   pdf
doi  openurl
  Title Wavelet based visible and infrared image fusion: a comparative study Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Sensors Abbreviated Journal SENS  
  Volume 16 Issue 6 Pages (up) 1-15  
  Keywords Image fusion; fusion evaluation metrics; visible and infrared imaging; discrete wavelet transform  
  Abstract This paper evaluates different wavelet-based cross-spectral image fusion strategies adopted to merge visible and infrared images. The objective is to find the best setup independently of the evaluation metric used to measure the performance. Quantitative performance results are obtained with state of the art approaches together with adaptations proposed in the current work. The options evaluated in the current work result from the combination of different setups in the wavelet image decomposition stage together with different fusion strategies for the final merging stage that generates the resulting representation. Most of the approaches evaluate results according to the application for which they are intended for. Sometimes a human observer is selected to judge the quality of the obtained results. In the current work, quantitative values are considered in order to find correlations between setups and performance of obtained results; these correlations can be used to define a criteria for selecting the best fusion strategy for a given pair of cross-spectral images. The whole procedure is evaluated with a large set of correctly registered visible and infrared image pairs, including both Near InfraRed (NIR) and Long Wave InfraRed (LWIR).  
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  Notes ADAS; 600.086; 600.076 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @SCA2016 Serial 2807  
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Author Meysam Madadi; Sergio Escalera; Jordi Gonzalez; Xavier Roca; Felipe Lumbreras edit  doi
openurl 
  Title Multi-part body segmentation based on depth maps for soft biometry analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Pattern Recognition Letters Abbreviated Journal PRL  
  Volume 56 Issue Pages (up) 14-21  
  Keywords 3D shape context; 3D point cloud alignment; Depth maps; Human body segmentation; Soft biometry analysis  
  Abstract This paper presents a novel method extracting biometric measures using depth sensors. Given a multi-part labeled training data, a new subject is aligned to the best model of the dataset, and soft biometrics such as lengths or circumference sizes of limbs and body are computed. The process is performed by training relevant pose clusters, defining a representative model, and fitting a 3D shape context descriptor within an iterative matching procedure. We show robust measures by applying orthogonal plates to body hull. We test our approach in a novel full-body RGB-Depth data set, showing accurate estimation of soft biometrics and better segmentation accuracy in comparison with random forest approach without requiring large training data.  
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  Notes HuPBA; ISE; ADAS; 600.076;600.049; 600.063; 600.054; 302.018;MILAB Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ MEG2015 Serial 2588  
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Author Lluis Pere de las Heras; Oriol Ramos Terrades; Sergi Robles; Gemma Sanchez edit  doi
openurl 
  Title CVC-FP and SGT: a new database for structural floor plan analysis and its groundtruthing tool Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication International Journal on Document Analysis and Recognition Abbreviated Journal IJDAR  
  Volume 18 Issue 1 Pages (up) 15-30  
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  Abstract Recent results on structured learning methods have shown the impact of structural information in a wide range of pattern recognition tasks. In the field of document image analysis, there is a long experience on structural methods for the analysis and information extraction of multiple types of documents. Yet, the lack of conveniently annotated and free access databases has not benefited the progress in some areas such as technical drawing understanding. In this paper, we present a floor plan database, named CVC-FP, that is annotated for the architectural objects and their structural relations. To construct this database, we have implemented a groundtruthing tool, the SGT tool, that allows to make specific this sort of information in a natural manner. This tool has been made for general purpose groundtruthing: It allows to define own object classes and properties, multiple labeling options are possible, grants the cooperative work, and provides user and version control. We finally have collected some of the recent work on floor plan interpretation and present a quantitative benchmark for this database. Both CVC-FP database and the SGT tool are freely released to the research community to ease comparisons between methods and boost reproducible research.  
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  Publisher Springer Berlin Heidelberg Place of Publication Editor  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1433-2833 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes DAG; ADAS; 600.061; 600.076; 600.077 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ HRR2015 Serial 2567  
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Author Fahad Shahbaz Khan; Muhammad Anwer Rao; Joost van de Weijer; Michael Felsberg; J.Laaksonen edit  doi
openurl 
  Title Compact color texture description for texture classification Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Pattern Recognition Letters Abbreviated Journal PRL  
  Volume 51 Issue Pages (up) 16-22  
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  Abstract Describing textures is a challenging problem in computer vision and pattern recognition. The classification problem involves assigning a category label to the texture class it belongs to. Several factors such as variations in scale, illumination and viewpoint make the problem of texture description extremely challenging. A variety of histogram based texture representations exists in literature.
However, combining multiple texture descriptors and assessing their complementarity is still an open research problem. In this paper, we first show that combining multiple local texture descriptors significantly improves the recognition performance compared to using a single best method alone. This
gain in performance is achieved at the cost of high-dimensional final image representation. To counter this problem, we propose to use an information-theoretic compression technique to obtain a compact texture description without any significant loss in accuracy. In addition, we perform a comprehensive
evaluation of pure color descriptors, popular in object recognition, for the problem of texture classification. Experiments are performed on four challenging texture datasets namely, KTH-TIPS-2a, KTH-TIPS-2b, FMD and Texture-10. The experiments clearly demonstrate that our proposed compact multi-texture approach outperforms the single best texture method alone. In all cases, discriminative color names outperforms other color features for texture classification. Finally, we show that combining discriminative color names with compact texture representation outperforms state-of-the-art methods by 7:8%, 4:3% and 5:0% on KTH-TIPS-2a, KTH-TIPS-2b and Texture-10 datasets respectively.
 
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  Notes LAMP; 600.068; 600.079;ADAS Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ KRW2015a Serial 2587  
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Author Mohammad Rouhani; Angel Sappa; E. Boyer edit  doi
openurl 
  Title Implicit B-Spline Surface Reconstruction Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication IEEE Transactions on Image Processing Abbreviated Journal TIP  
  Volume 24 Issue 1 Pages (up) 22 - 32  
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  Abstract This paper presents a fast and flexible curve, and surface reconstruction technique based on implicit B-spline. This representation does not require any parameterization and it is locally supported. This fact has been exploited in this paper to propose a reconstruction technique through solving a sparse system of equations. This method is further accelerated to reduce the dimension to the active control lattice. Moreover, the surface smoothness and user interaction are allowed for controlling the surface. Finally, a novel weighting technique has been introduced in order to blend small patches and smooth them in the overlapping regions. The whole framework is very fast and efficient and can handle large cloud of points with very low computational cost. The experimental results show the flexibility and accuracy of the proposed algorithm to describe objects with complex topologies. Comparisons with other fitting methods highlight the superiority of the proposed approach in the presence of noise and missing data.  
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  ISSN 1057-7149 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes ADAS; 600.076 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ RSB2015 Serial 2541  
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Author Oscar Argudo; Marc Comino; Antonio Chica; Carlos Andujar; Felipe Lumbreras edit  url
openurl 
  Title Segmentation of aerial images for plausible detail synthesis Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Computers & Graphics Abbreviated Journal CG  
  Volume 71 Issue Pages (up) 23-34  
  Keywords Terrain editing; Detail synthesis; Vegetation synthesis; Terrain rendering; Image segmentation  
  Abstract The visual enrichment of digital terrain models with plausible synthetic detail requires the segmentation of aerial images into a suitable collection of categories. In this paper we present a complete pipeline for segmenting high-resolution aerial images into a user-defined set of categories distinguishing e.g. terrain, sand, snow, water, and different types of vegetation. This segmentation-for-synthesis problem implies that per-pixel categories must be established according to the algorithms chosen for rendering the synthetic detail. This precludes the definition of a universal set of labels and hinders the construction of large training sets. Since artists might choose to add new categories on the fly, the whole pipeline must be robust against unbalanced datasets, and fast on both training and inference. Under these constraints, we analyze the contribution of common per-pixel descriptors, and compare the performance of state-of-the-art supervised learning algorithms. We report the findings of two user studies. The first one was conducted to analyze human accuracy when manually labeling aerial images. The second user study compares detailed terrains built using different segmentation strategies, including official land cover maps. These studies demonstrate that our approach can be used to turn digital elevation models into fully-featured, detailed terrains with minimal authoring efforts.  
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  ISSN 0097-8493 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes ADAS; 600.086; 600.118 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ ACC2018 Serial 3147  
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Author Angel Sappa; Cristhian A. Aguilera-Carrasco; Juan A. Carvajal Ayala; Miguel Oliveira; Dennis Romero; Boris Vintimilla; Ricardo Toledo edit   pdf
doi  openurl
  Title Monocular visual odometry: A cross-spectral image fusion based approach Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Robotics and Autonomous Systems Abbreviated Journal RAS  
  Volume 85 Issue Pages (up) 26-36  
  Keywords Monocular visual odometry; LWIR-RGB cross-spectral imaging; Image fusion  
  Abstract This manuscript evaluates the usage of fused cross-spectral images in a monocular visual odometry approach. Fused images are obtained through a Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) scheme, where the best setup is empirically obtained by means of a mutual information based evaluation metric. The objective is to have a flexible scheme where fusion parameters are adapted according to the characteristics of the given images. Visual odometry is computed from the fused monocular images using an off the shelf approach. Experimental results using data sets obtained with two different platforms are presented. Additionally, comparison with a previous approach as well as with monocular-visible/infrared spectra are also provided showing the advantages of the proposed scheme.  
  Address  
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  Publisher Elsevier B.V. Place of Publication Editor  
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  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes ADAS;600.086; 600.076 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @SAC2016 Serial 2811  
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