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Author Guillermo Torres; Sonia Baeza; Carles Sanchez; Ignasi Guasch; Antoni Rosell; Debora Gil edit  doi
openurl 
  Title An Intelligent Radiomic Approach for Lung Cancer Screening Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2022 Publication Applied Sciences Abbreviated Journal APPLSCI  
  Volume 12 Issue 3 Pages 1568  
  Keywords Lung cancer; Early diagnosis; Screening; Neural networks; Image embedding; Architecture optimization  
  Abstract The efficiency of lung cancer screening for reducing mortality is hindered by the high rate of false positives. Artificial intelligence applied to radiomics could help to early discard benign cases from the analysis of CT scans. The available amount of data and the fact that benign cases are a minority, constitutes a main challenge for the successful use of state of the art methods (like deep learning), which can be biased, over-fitted and lack of clinical reproducibility. We present an hybrid approach combining the potential of radiomic features to characterize nodules in CT scans and the generalization of the feed forward networks. In order to obtain maximal reproducibility with minimal training data, we propose an embedding of nodules based on the statistical significance of radiomic features for malignancy detection. This representation space of lesions is the input to a feed
forward network, which architecture and hyperparameters are optimized using own-defined metrics of the diagnostic power of the whole system. Results of the best model on an independent set of patients achieve 100% of sensitivity and 83% of specificity (AUC = 0.94) for malignancy detection.
 
  Address Jan 2022  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes IAM; 600.139; 600.145 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ Serial 3699  
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Author Miquel Angel Piera; Jose Luis Muñoz; Debora Gil; Gonzalo Martin; Jordi Manzano edit  doi
openurl 
  Title A Socio-Technical Simulation Model for the Design of the Future Single Pilot Cockpit: An Opportunity to Improve Pilot Performance Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2022 Publication IEEE Access Abbreviated Journal ACCESS  
  Volume 10 Issue Pages 22330-22343  
  Keywords Human factors ; Performance evaluation ; Simulation; Sociotechnical systems ; System performance  
  Abstract The future deployment of single pilot operations must be supported by new cockpit computer services. Such services require an adaptive context-aware integration of technical functionalities with the concurrent tasks that a pilot must deal with. Advanced artificial intelligence supporting services and improved communication capabilities are the key enabling technologies that will render future cockpits more integrated with the present digitalized air traffic management system. However, an issue in the integration of such technologies is the lack of socio-technical analysis in the design of these teaming mechanisms. A key factor in determining how and when a service support should be provided is the dynamic evolution of pilot workload. This paper investigates how the socio-technical model-based systems engineering approach paves the way for the design of a digital assistant framework by formalizing this workload. The model was validated in an Airbus A-320 cockpit simulator, and the results confirmed the degraded pilot behavioral model and the performance impact according to different contextual flight deck information. This study contributes to practical knowledge for designing human-machine task-sharing systems.  
  Address Feb 2022  
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  Notes IAM; Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ Serial 3697  
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Author Mireia Sole; Joan Blanco; Debora Gil; Oliver Valero; B. Cardenas; G. Fonseka; E. Anton; Alvaro Pascual; Richard Frodsham; Zaida Sarrate edit  doi
openurl 
  Title Time to match; when do homologous chromosomes become closer? Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2022 Publication Chromosoma Abbreviated Journal CHRO  
  Volume Issue Pages  
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  Abstract In most eukaryotes, pairing of homologous chromosomes is an essential feature of meiosis that ensures homologous recombination and segregation. However, when the pairing process begins, it is still under investigation. Contrasting data exists in Mus musculus, since both leptotene DSB-dependent and preleptotene DSB-independent mechanisms have been described. To unravel this contention, we examined homologous pairing in pre-meiotic and meiotic Mus musculus cells using a threedimensional fuorescence in situ hybridization-based protocol, which enables the analysis of the entire karyotype using DNA painting probes. Our data establishes in an unambiguously manner that 73.83% of homologous chromosomes are already paired at premeiotic stages (spermatogonia-early preleptotene spermatocytes). The percentage of paired homologous chromosomes increases to 84.60% at mid-preleptotene-zygotene stage, reaching 100% at pachytene stage. Importantly, our results demonstrate a high percentage of homologous pairing observed before the onset of meiosis; this pairing does not occur randomly, as the percentage was higher than that observed in somatic cells (19.47%) and between nonhomologous chromosomes (41.1%). Finally, we have also observed that premeiotic homologous pairing is asynchronous and independent of the chromosome size, GC content, or presence of NOR regions.  
  Address August, 2022  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes IAM; 601.139; 600.145; 600.096 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ Serial 3719  
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Author Oriol Ramos Terrades; Albert Berenguel; Debora Gil edit  doi
openurl 
  Title A Flexible Outlier Detector Based on a Topology Given by Graph Communities Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2022 Publication Big Data Research Abbreviated Journal BDR  
  Volume 29 Issue Pages 100332  
  Keywords Classification algorithms; Detection algorithms; Description of feature space local structure; Graph communities; Machine learning algorithms; Outlier detectors  
  Abstract Outlier detection is essential for optimal performance of machine learning methods and statistical predictive models. Their detection is especially determinant in small sample size unbalanced problems, since in such settings outliers become highly influential and significantly bias models. This particular experimental settings are usual in medical applications, like diagnosis of rare pathologies, outcome of experimental personalized treatments or pandemic emergencies. In contrast to population-based methods, neighborhood based local approaches compute an outlier score from the neighbors of each sample, are simple flexible methods that have the potential to perform well in small sample size unbalanced problems. A main concern of local approaches is the impact that the computation of each sample neighborhood has on the method performance. Most approaches use a distance in the feature space to define a single neighborhood that requires careful selection of several parameters, like the number of neighbors.
This work presents a local approach based on a local measure of the heterogeneity of sample labels in the feature space considered as a topological manifold. Topology is computed using the communities of a weighted graph codifying mutual nearest neighbors in the feature space. This way, we provide with a set of multiple neighborhoods able to describe the structure of complex spaces without parameter fine tuning. The extensive experiments on real-world and synthetic data sets show that our approach outperforms, both, local and global strategies in multi and single view settings.
 
  Address August 28, 2022  
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  Notes DAG; IAM; 600.140; 600.121; 600.139; 600.145; 600.159 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ Serial 3718  
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Author Marta Ligero; Alonso Garcia Ruiz; Cristina Viaplana; Guillermo Villacampa; Maria V Raciti; Jaid Landa; Ignacio Matos; Juan Martin Liberal; Maria Ochoa de Olza; Cinta Hierro; Joaquin Mateo; Macarena Gonzalez; Rafael Morales Barrera; Cristina Suarez; Jordi Rodon; Elena Elez; Irene Braña; Eva Muñoz-Couselo; Ana Oaknin; Roberta Fasani; Paolo Nuciforo; Debora Gil; Carlota Rubio Perez; Joan Seoane; Enriqueta Felip; Manuel Escobar; Josep Tabernero; Joan Carles; Rodrigo Dienstmann; Elena Garralda; Raquel Perez Lopez edit  url
doi  openurl
  Title A CT-based radiomics signature is associated with response to immune checkpoint inhibitors in advanced solid tumors Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2021 Publication Radiology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 299 Issue 1 Pages 109-119  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Background Reliable predictive imaging markers of response to immune checkpoint inhibitors are needed. Purpose To develop and validate a pretreatment CT-based radiomics signature to predict response to immune checkpoint inhibitors in advanced solid tumors. Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, a radiomics signature was developed in patients with advanced solid tumors (including breast, cervix, gastrointestinal) treated with anti-programmed cell death-1 or programmed cell death ligand-1 monotherapy from August 2012 to May 2018 (cohort 1). This was tested in patients with bladder and lung cancer (cohorts 2 and 3). Radiomics variables were extracted from all metastases delineated at pretreatment CT and selected by using an elastic-net model. A regression model combined radiomics and clinical variables with response as the end point. Biologic validation of the radiomics score with RNA profiling of cytotoxic cells (cohort 4) was assessed with Mann-Whitney analysis. Results The radiomics signature was developed in 85 patients (cohort 1: mean age, 58 years ± 13 [standard deviation]; 43 men) and tested on 46 patients (cohort 2: mean age, 70 years ± 12; 37 men) and 47 patients (cohort 3: mean age, 64 years ± 11; 40 men). Biologic validation was performed in a further cohort of 20 patients (cohort 4: mean age, 60 years ± 13; 14 men). The radiomics signature was associated with clinical response to immune checkpoint inhibitors (area under the curve [AUC], 0.70; 95% CI: 0.64, 0.77; P < .001). In cohorts 2 and 3, the AUC was 0.67 (95% CI: 0.58, 0.76) and 0.67 (95% CI: 0.56, 0.77; P < .001), respectively. A radiomics-clinical signature (including baseline albumin level and lymphocyte count) improved on radiomics-only performance (AUC, 0.74 [95% CI: 0.63, 0.84; P < .001]; Akaike information criterion, 107.00 and 109.90, respectively). Conclusion A pretreatment CT-based radiomics signature is associated with response to immune checkpoint inhibitors, likely reflecting the tumor immunophenotype. © RSNA, 2021 Online supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Summers in this issue.  
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  Notes IAM; 600.145 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ LGV2021 Serial 3593  
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Author Mireia Sole; Joan Blanco; Debora Gil; Oliver Valero; Alvaro Pascual; B. Cardenas; G. Fonseka; E. Anton; Richard Frodsham; Francesca Vidal; Zaida Sarrate edit  url
openurl 
  Title Chromosomal positioning in spermatogenic cells is influenced by chromosomal factors associated with gene activity, bouquet formation, and meiotic sex-chromosome inactivation Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2021 Publication Chromosoma Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 130 Issue Pages 163-175  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Chromosome territoriality is not random along the cell cycle and it is mainly governed by intrinsic chromosome factors and gene expression patterns. Conversely, very few studies have explored the factors that determine chromosome territoriality and its influencing factors during meiosis. In this study, we analysed chromosome positioning in murine spermatogenic cells using three-dimensionally fluorescence in situ hybridization-based methodology, which allows the analysis of the entire karyotype. The main objective of the study was to decipher chromosome positioning in a radial axis (all analysed germ-cell nuclei) and longitudinal axis (only spermatozoa) and to identify the chromosomal factors that regulate such an arrangement. Results demonstrated that the radial positioning of chromosomes during spermatogenesis was cell-type specific and influenced by chromosomal factors associated to gene activity. Chromosomes with specific features that enhance transcription (high GC content, high gene density and high numbers of predicted expressed genes) were preferentially observed in the inner part of the nucleus in virtually all cell types. Moreover, the position of the sex chromosomes was influenced by their transcriptional status, from the periphery of the nucleus when its activity was repressed (pachytene) to a more internal position when it is partially activated (spermatid). At pachytene, chromosome positioning was also influenced by chromosome size due to the bouquet formation. Longitudinal chromosome positioning in the sperm nucleus was not random either, suggesting the importance of ordered longitudinal positioning for the release and activation of the paternal genome after fertilisation.  
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  Notes IAM; 600.145 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ SBG2021 Serial 3592  
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Author Sonia Baeza; R.Domingo; M.Salcedo; G.Moragas; J.Deportos; I.Garcia Olive; Carles Sanchez; Debora Gil; Antoni Rosell edit  url
openurl 
  Title Artificial Intelligence to Optimize Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis During Covid-19 Pandemic by Perfusion SPECT/CT, a Pilot Study Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2021 Publication American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine Abbreviated Journal  
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  Notes IAM; 600.145 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ BDS2021 Serial 3591  
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Author Debora Gil; Antonio Esteban Lansaque; Agnes Borras; Esmitt Ramirez; Carles Sanchez edit   pdf
url  doi
openurl 
  Title Intraoperative Extraction of Airways Anatomy in VideoBronchoscopy Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2020 Publication IEEE Access Abbreviated Journal ACCESS  
  Volume 8 Issue Pages 159696 - 159704  
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  Abstract A main bottleneck in bronchoscopic biopsy sampling is to efficiently reach the lesion navigating across bronchial levels. Any guidance system should be able to localize the scope position during the intervention with minimal costs and alteration of clinical protocols. With the final goal of an affordable image-based guidance, this work presents a novel strategy to extract and codify the anatomical structure of bronchi, as well as, the scope navigation path from videobronchoscopy. Experiments using interventional data show that our method accurately identifies the bronchial structure. Meanwhile, experiments using simulated data verify that the extracted navigation path matches the 3D route.  
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  Notes IAM; 600.139; 600.145 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ GEB2020 Serial 3467  
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Author Guillermo Torres; Debora Gil edit  openurl
  Title A multi-shape loss function with adaptive class balancing for the segmentation of lung structures Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2020 Publication International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery Abbreviated Journal IJCAR  
  Volume 15 Issue 1 Pages S154-55  
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  Notes IAM Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ ToG2020 Serial 3590  
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Author Saad Minhas; Aura Hernandez-Sabate; Shoaib Ehsan; Klaus McDonald Maier edit  doi
openurl 
  Title Effects of Non-Driving Related Tasks during Self-Driving mode Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2020 Publication IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems Abbreviated Journal TITS  
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  Abstract Perception reaction time and mental workload have proven to be crucial in manual driving. Moreover, in highly automated cars, where most of the research is focusing on Level 4 Autonomous driving, take-over performance is also a key factor when taking road safety into account. This study aims to investigate how the immersion in non-driving related tasks affects the take-over performance of drivers in given scenarios. The paper also highlights the use of virtual simulators to gather efficient data that can be crucial in easing the transition between manual and autonomous driving scenarios. The use of Computer Aided Simulations is of absolute importance in this day and age since the automotive industry is rapidly moving towards Autonomous technology. An experiment comprising of 40 subjects was performed to examine the reaction times of driver and the influence of other variables in the success of take-over performance in highly automated driving under different circumstances within a highway virtual environment. The results reflect the relationship between reaction times under different scenarios that the drivers might face under the circumstances stated above as well as the importance of variables such as velocity in the success on regaining car control after automated driving. The implications of the results acquired are important for understanding the criteria needed for designing Human Machine Interfaces specifically aimed towards automated driving conditions. Understanding the need to keep drivers in the loop during automation, whilst allowing drivers to safely engage in other non-driving related tasks is an important research area which can be aided by the proposed study.  
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  Notes IAM; 600.139; 600.145 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ MHE2020 Serial 3468  
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