Anjan Dutta, Josep Llados and Umapada Pal. 2011. Bag-of-GraphPaths Descriptors for Symbol Recognition and Spotting in Line Drawings. *In proceedings of 9th IAPR Workshop on Graphic Recognition*. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. (LNCS.)

Graphical symbol recognition and spotting recently have become an important research activity. In this work we present a descriptor for symbols, especially for line drawings. The descriptor is based on the graph representation of graphical objects. We construct graphs from the vectorized information of the binarized images, where the critical points detected by the vectorization algorithm are considered as nodes and the lines joining them are considered as edges. Graph paths between two nodes in a graph are the finite sequences of nodes following the order from the starting to the final node. The occurrences of different graph paths in a given graph is an important feature, as they capture the geometrical and structural attributes of a graph. So the graph representing a symbol can efficiently be represent by the occurrences of its different paths. Their occurrences in a symbol can be obtained in terms of a histogram counting the number of some fixed prototype paths, we call the histogram as the Bag-of-GraphPaths (BOGP). These BOGP histograms are used as a descriptor to measure the distance among the symbols in vector space. We use the descriptor for three applications, they are: (1) classification of the graphical symbols, (2) spotting of the architectural symbols on floorplans, (3) classification of the historical handwritten words.