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Author Pau Rodriguez; Miguel Angel Bautista; Sergio Escalera; Jordi Gonzalez
Title Beyond Oneshot Encoding: lower dimensional target embedding Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Image and Vision Computing Abbreviated Journal IMAVIS
Volume (down) 75 Issue Pages 21-31
Keywords Error correcting output codes; Output embeddings; Deep learning; Computer vision
Abstract Target encoding plays a central role when learning Convolutional Neural Networks. In this realm, one-hot encoding is the most prevalent strategy due to its simplicity. However, this so widespread encoding schema assumes a flat label space, thus ignoring rich relationships existing among labels that can be exploited during training. In large-scale datasets, data does not span the full label space, but instead lies in a low-dimensional output manifold. Following this observation, we embed the targets into a low-dimensional space, drastically improving convergence speed while preserving accuracy. Our contribution is two fold: (i) We show that random projections of the label space are a valid tool to find such lower dimensional embeddings, boosting dramatically convergence rates at zero computational cost; and (ii) we propose a normalized eigenrepresentation of the class manifold that encodes the targets with minimal information loss, improving the accuracy of random projections encoding while enjoying the same convergence rates. Experiments on CIFAR-100, CUB200-2011, Imagenet, and MIT Places demonstrate that the proposed approach drastically improves convergence speed while reaching very competitive accuracy rates.
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
Area Expedition Conference
Notes ISE; HuPBA; 600.098; 602.133; 602.121; 600.119 Approved no
Call Number Admin @ si @ RBE2018 Serial 3120
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