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Author Aura Hernandez-Sabate; Jose Elias Yauri; Pau Folch; Miquel Angel Piera; Debora Gil edit  doi
openurl 
  Title Recognition of the Mental Workloads of Pilots in the Cockpit Using EEG Signals Type Journal Article
  Year 2022 Publication Applied Sciences Abbreviated Journal APPLSCI  
  Volume 12 Issue 5 Pages 2298  
  Keywords Cognitive states; Mental workload; EEG analysis; Neural networks; Multimodal data fusion  
  Abstract The commercial flightdeck is a naturally multi-tasking work environment, one in which interruptions are frequent come in various forms, contributing in many cases to aviation incident reports. Automatic characterization of pilots’ workloads is essential to preventing these kind of incidents. In addition, minimizing the physiological sensor network as much as possible remains both a challenge and a requirement. Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals have shown high correlations with specific cognitive and mental states, such as workload. However, there is not enough evidence in the literature to validate how well models generalize in cases of new subjects performing tasks with workloads similar to the ones included during the model’s training. In this paper, we propose a convolutional neural network to classify EEG features across different mental workloads in a continuous performance task test that partly measures working memory and working memory capacity. Our model is valid at the general population level and it is able to transfer task learning to pilot mental workload recognition in a simulated operational environment.  
  Address February 2022  
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  Notes IAM; ADAS; 600.139; 600.145; 600.118 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ Serial (down) 3720  
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Author Gemma Rotger; Francesc Moreno-Noguer; Felipe Lumbreras; Antonio Agudo edit  url
openurl 
  Title Detailed 3D face reconstruction from a single RGB image Type Journal
  Year 2019 Publication Journal of WSCG Abbreviated Journal JWSCG  
  Volume 27 Issue 2 Pages 103-112  
  Keywords 3D Wrinkle Reconstruction; Face Analysis, Optimization.  
  Abstract This paper introduces a method to obtain a detailed 3D reconstruction of facial skin from a single RGB image.
To this end, we propose the exclusive use of an input image without requiring any information about the observed material nor training data to model the wrinkle properties. They are detected and characterized directly from the image via a simple and effective parametric model, determining several features such as location, orientation, width, and height. With these ingredients, we propose to minimize a photometric error to retrieve the final detailed 3D map, which is initialized by current techniques based on deep learning. In contrast with other approaches, we only require estimating a depth parameter, making our approach fast and intuitive. Extensive experimental evaluation is presented in a wide variety of synthetic and real images, including different skin properties and facial
expressions. In all cases, our method outperforms the current approaches regarding 3D reconstruction accuracy, providing striking results for both large and fine wrinkles.
 
  Address 2019/11  
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  Notes ADAS; 600.086; 600.130; 600.122 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ Serial (down) 3708  
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Author Idoia Ruiz; Joan Serrat edit  doi
openurl 
  Title Hierarchical Novelty Detection for Traffic Sign Recognition Type Journal Article
  Year 2022 Publication Sensors Abbreviated Journal SENS  
  Volume 22 Issue 12 Pages 4389  
  Keywords Novelty detection; hierarchical classification; deep learning; traffic sign recognition; autonomous driving; computer vision  
  Abstract Recent works have made significant progress in novelty detection, i.e., the problem of detecting samples of novel classes, never seen during training, while classifying those that belong to known classes. However, the only information this task provides about novel samples is that they are unknown. In this work, we leverage hierarchical taxonomies of classes to provide informative outputs for samples of novel classes. We predict their closest class in the taxonomy, i.e., its parent class. We address this problem, known as hierarchical novelty detection, by proposing a novel loss, namely Hierarchical Cosine Loss that is designed to learn class prototypes along with an embedding of discriminative features consistent with the taxonomy. We apply it to traffic sign recognition, where we predict the parent class semantics for new types of traffic signs. Our model beats state-of-the art approaches on two large scale traffic sign benchmarks, Mapillary Traffic Sign Dataset (MTSD) and Tsinghua-Tencent 100K (TT100K), and performs similarly on natural images benchmarks (AWA2, CUB). For TT100K and MTSD, our approach is able to detect novel samples at the correct nodes of the hierarchy with 81% and 36% of accuracy, respectively, at 80% known class accuracy.  
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  Notes ADAS; 600.154 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ Serial (down) 3684  
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Author Akhil Gurram; Ahmet Faruk Tuna; Fengyi Shen; Onay Urfalioglu; Antonio Lopez edit   pdf
doi  openurl
  Title Monocular Depth Estimation through Virtual-world Supervision and Real-world SfM Self-Supervision Type Journal Article
  Year 2021 Publication IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems Abbreviated Journal TITS  
  Volume 23 Issue 8 Pages 12738-12751  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Depth information is essential for on-board perception in autonomous driving and driver assistance. Monocular depth estimation (MDE) is very appealing since it allows for appearance and depth being on direct pixelwise correspondence without further calibration. Best MDE models are based on Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) trained in a supervised manner, i.e., assuming pixelwise ground truth (GT). Usually, this GT is acquired at training time through a calibrated multi-modal suite of sensors. However, also using only a monocular system at training time is cheaper and more scalable. This is possible by relying on structure-from-motion (SfM) principles to generate self-supervision. Nevertheless, problems of camouflaged objects, visibility changes, static-camera intervals, textureless areas, and scale ambiguity, diminish the usefulness of such self-supervision. In this paper, we perform monocular depth estimation by virtual-world supervision (MonoDEVS) and real-world SfM self-supervision. We compensate the SfM self-supervision limitations by leveraging virtual-world images with accurate semantic and depth supervision and addressing the virtual-to-real domain gap. Our MonoDEVSNet outperforms previous MDE CNNs trained on monocular and even stereo sequences.  
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  Notes ADAS; 600.118 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ GTS2021 Serial (down) 3598  
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Author Hannes Mueller; Andre Groeger; Jonathan Hersh; Andrea Matranga; Joan Serrat edit   pdf
url  doi
openurl 
  Title Monitoring war destruction from space using machine learning Type Journal Article
  Year 2021 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal PNAS  
  Volume 118 Issue 23 Pages e2025400118  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Existing data on building destruction in conflict zones rely on eyewitness reports or manual detection, which makes it generally scarce, incomplete, and potentially biased. This lack of reliable data imposes severe limitations for media reporting, humanitarian relief efforts, human-rights monitoring, reconstruction initiatives, and academic studies of violent conflict. This article introduces an automated method of measuring destruction in high-resolution satellite images using deep-learning techniques combined with label augmentation and spatial and temporal smoothing, which exploit the underlying spatial and temporal structure of destruction. As a proof of concept, we apply this method to the Syrian civil war and reconstruct the evolution of damage in major cities across the country. Our approach allows generating destruction data with unprecedented scope, resolution, and frequency—and makes use of the ever-higher frequency at which satellite imagery becomes available.  
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  Notes ADAS; 600.118 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ MGH2021 Serial (down) 3584  
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Author Jose L. Gomez; Gabriel Villalonga; Antonio Lopez edit   pdf
url  openurl
  Title Co-Training for Deep Object Detection: Comparing Single-Modal and Multi-Modal Approaches Type Journal Article
  Year 2021 Publication Sensors Abbreviated Journal SENS  
  Volume 21 Issue 9 Pages 3185  
  Keywords co-training; multi-modality; vision-based object detection; ADAS; self-driving  
  Abstract Top-performing computer vision models are powered by convolutional neural networks (CNNs). Training an accurate CNN highly depends on both the raw sensor data and their associated ground truth (GT). Collecting such GT is usually done through human labeling, which is time-consuming and does not scale as we wish. This data-labeling bottleneck may be intensified due to domain shifts among image sensors, which could force per-sensor data labeling. In this paper, we focus on the use of co-training, a semi-supervised learning (SSL) method, for obtaining self-labeled object bounding boxes (BBs), i.e., the GT to train deep object detectors. In particular, we assess the goodness of multi-modal co-training by relying on two different views of an image, namely, appearance (RGB) and estimated depth (D). Moreover, we compare appearance-based single-modal co-training with multi-modal. Our results suggest that in a standard SSL setting (no domain shift, a few human-labeled data) and under virtual-to-real domain shift (many virtual-world labeled data, no human-labeled data) multi-modal co-training outperforms single-modal. In the latter case, by performing GAN-based domain translation both co-training modalities are on par, at least when using an off-the-shelf depth estimation model not specifically trained on the translated images.  
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  Notes ADAS; 600.118 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ GVL2021 Serial (down) 3562  
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Author Daniel Hernandez; Antonio Espinosa; David Vazquez; Antonio Lopez; Juan C. Moure edit   pdf
url  doi
openurl 
  Title 3D Perception With Slanted Stixels on GPU Type Journal Article
  Year 2021 Publication IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems Abbreviated Journal TPDS  
  Volume 32 Issue 10 Pages 2434-2447  
  Keywords Daniel Hernandez-Juarez; Antonio Espinosa; David Vazquez; Antonio M. Lopez; Juan C. Moure  
  Abstract This article presents a GPU-accelerated software design of the recently proposed model of Slanted Stixels, which represents the geometric and semantic information of a scene in a compact and accurate way. We reformulate the measurement depth model to reduce the computational complexity of the algorithm, relying on the confidence of the depth estimation and the identification of invalid values to handle outliers. The proposed massively parallel scheme and data layout for the irregular computation pattern that corresponds to a Dynamic Programming paradigm is described and carefully analyzed in performance terms. Performance is shown to scale gracefully on current generation embedded GPUs. We assess the proposed methods in terms of semantic and geometric accuracy as well as run-time performance on three publicly available benchmark datasets. Our approach achieves real-time performance with high accuracy for 2048 × 1024 image sizes and 4 × 4 Stixel resolution on the low-power embedded GPU of an NVIDIA Tegra Xavier.  
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  Notes ADAS; 600.124; 600.118 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ HEV2021 Serial (down) 3561  
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Author Sudeep Katakol; Basem Elbarashy; Luis Herranz; Joost Van de Weijer; Antonio Lopez edit   pdf
url  doi
openurl 
  Title Distributed Learning and Inference with Compressed Images Type Journal Article
  Year 2021 Publication IEEE Transactions on Image Processing Abbreviated Journal TIP  
  Volume 30 Issue Pages 3069 - 3083  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Modern computer vision requires processing large amounts of data, both while training the model and/or during inference, once the model is deployed. Scenarios where images are captured and processed in physically separated locations are increasingly common (e.g. autonomous vehicles, cloud computing). In addition, many devices suffer from limited resources to store or transmit data (e.g. storage space, channel capacity). In these scenarios, lossy image compression plays a crucial role to effectively increase the number of images collected under such constraints. However, lossy compression entails some undesired degradation of the data that may harm the performance of the downstream analysis task at hand, since important semantic information may be lost in the process. Moreover, we may only have compressed images at training time but are able to use original images at inference time, or vice versa, and in such a case, the downstream model suffers from covariate shift. In this paper, we analyze this phenomenon, with a special focus on vision-based perception for autonomous driving as a paradigmatic scenario. We see that loss of semantic information and covariate shift do indeed exist, resulting in a drop in performance that depends on the compression rate. In order to address the problem, we propose dataset restoration, based on image restoration with generative adversarial networks (GANs). Our method is agnostic to both the particular image compression method and the downstream task; and has the advantage of not adding additional cost to the deployed models, which is particularly important in resource-limited devices. The presented experiments focus on semantic segmentation as a challenging use case, cover a broad range of compression rates and diverse datasets, and show how our method is able to significantly alleviate the negative effects of compression on the downstream visual task.  
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  Notes LAMP; ADAS; 600.120; 600.118 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ KEH2021 Serial (down) 3543  
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Author Yi Xiao; Felipe Codevilla; Akhil Gurram; Onay Urfalioglu; Antonio Lopez edit   pdf
url  doi
openurl 
  Title Multimodal end-to-end autonomous driving Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems Abbreviated Journal TITS  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-11  
  Keywords  
  Abstract A crucial component of an autonomous vehicle (AV) is the artificial intelligence (AI) is able to drive towards a desired destination. Today, there are different paradigms addressing the development of AI drivers. On the one hand, we find modular pipelines, which divide the driving task into sub-tasks such as perception and maneuver planning and control. On the other hand, we find end-to-end driving approaches that try to learn a direct mapping from input raw sensor data to vehicle control signals. The later are relatively less studied, but are gaining popularity since they are less demanding in terms of sensor data annotation. This paper focuses on end-to-end autonomous driving. So far, most proposals relying on this paradigm assume RGB images as input sensor data. However, AVs will not be equipped only with cameras, but also with active sensors providing accurate depth information (e.g., LiDARs). Accordingly, this paper analyses whether combining RGB and depth modalities, i.e. using RGBD data, produces better end-to-end AI drivers than relying on a single modality. We consider multimodality based on early, mid and late fusion schemes, both in multisensory and single-sensor (monocular depth estimation) settings. Using the CARLA simulator and conditional imitation learning (CIL), we show how, indeed, early fusion multimodality outperforms single-modality.  
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  Notes ADAS Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ XCG2020 Serial (down) 3490  
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Author Gabriel Villalonga; Antonio Lopez edit   pdf
doi  openurl
  Title Co-Training for On-Board Deep Object Detection Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication IEEE Access Abbreviated Journal ACCESS  
  Volume Issue Pages 194441 - 194456  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Providing ground truth supervision to train visual models has been a bottleneck over the years, exacerbated by domain shifts which degenerate the performance of such models. This was the case when visual tasks relied on handcrafted features and shallow machine learning and, despite its unprecedented performance gains, the problem remains open within the deep learning paradigm due to its data-hungry nature. Best performing deep vision-based object detectors are trained in a supervised manner by relying on human-labeled bounding boxes which localize class instances (i.e. objects) within the training images. Thus, object detection is one of such tasks for which human labeling is a major bottleneck. In this article, we assess co-training as a semi-supervised learning method for self-labeling objects in unlabeled images, so reducing the human-labeling effort for developing deep object detectors. Our study pays special attention to a scenario involving domain shift; in particular, when we have automatically generated virtual-world images with object bounding boxes and we have real-world images which are unlabeled. Moreover, we are particularly interested in using co-training for deep object detection in the context of driver assistance systems and/or self-driving vehicles. Thus, using well-established datasets and protocols for object detection in these application contexts, we will show how co-training is a paradigm worth to pursue for alleviating object labeling, working both alone and together with task-agnostic domain adaptation.  
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  Notes ADAS; 600.118 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ ViL2020 Serial (down) 3488  
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