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Author Angel Sappa; P. Carvajal; Cristhian A. Aguilera-Carrasco; Miguel Oliveira; Dennis Romero; Boris Vintimilla edit   pdf
doi  openurl
  Title Wavelet based visible and infrared image fusion: a comparative study Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication (up) Sensors Abbreviated Journal SENS  
  Volume 16 Issue 6 Pages 1-15  
  Keywords Image fusion; fusion evaluation metrics; visible and infrared imaging; discrete wavelet transform  
  Abstract This paper evaluates different wavelet-based cross-spectral image fusion strategies adopted to merge visible and infrared images. The objective is to find the best setup independently of the evaluation metric used to measure the performance. Quantitative performance results are obtained with state of the art approaches together with adaptations proposed in the current work. The options evaluated in the current work result from the combination of different setups in the wavelet image decomposition stage together with different fusion strategies for the final merging stage that generates the resulting representation. Most of the approaches evaluate results according to the application for which they are intended for. Sometimes a human observer is selected to judge the quality of the obtained results. In the current work, quantitative values are considered in order to find correlations between setups and performance of obtained results; these correlations can be used to define a criteria for selecting the best fusion strategy for a given pair of cross-spectral images. The whole procedure is evaluated with a large set of correctly registered visible and infrared image pairs, including both Near InfraRed (NIR) and Long Wave InfraRed (LWIR).  
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  Notes ADAS; 600.086; 600.076 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @SCA2016 Serial 2807  
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Author Cristhian A. Aguilera-Carrasco; Angel Sappa; Cristhian Aguilera; Ricardo Toledo edit   pdf
doi  openurl
  Title Cross-Spectral Local Descriptors via Quadruplet Network Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication (up) Sensors Abbreviated Journal SENS  
  Volume 17 Issue 4 Pages 873  
  Keywords  
  Abstract This paper presents a novel CNN-based architecture, referred to as Q-Net, to learn local feature descriptors that are useful for matching image patches from two different spectral bands. Given correctly matched and non-matching cross-spectral image pairs, a quadruplet network is trained to map input image patches to a common Euclidean space, regardless of the input spectral band. Our approach is inspired by the recent success of triplet networks in the visible spectrum, but adapted for cross-spectral scenarios, where, for each matching pair, there are always two possible non-matching patches: one for each spectrum. Experimental evaluations on a public cross-spectral VIS-NIR dataset shows that the proposed approach improves the state-of-the-art. Moreover, the proposed technique can also be used in mono-spectral settings, obtaining a similar performance to triplet network descriptors, but requiring less training data.  
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  Notes ADAS; 600.086; 600.118 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ ASA2017 Serial 2914  
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Author Zhijie Fang; David Vazquez; Antonio Lopez edit   pdf
doi  openurl
  Title On-Board Detection of Pedestrian Intentions Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication (up) Sensors Abbreviated Journal SENS  
  Volume 17 Issue 10 Pages 2193  
  Keywords pedestrian intention; ADAS; self-driving  
  Abstract Avoiding vehicle-to-pedestrian crashes is a critical requirement for nowadays advanced driver assistant systems (ADAS) and future self-driving vehicles. Accordingly, detecting pedestrians from raw sensor data has a history of more than 15 years of research, with vision playing a central role.
During the last years, deep learning has boosted the accuracy of image-based pedestrian detectors.
However, detection is just the first step towards answering the core question, namely is the vehicle going to crash with a pedestrian provided preventive actions are not taken? Therefore, knowing as soon as possible if a detected pedestrian has the intention of crossing the road ahead of the vehicle is
essential for performing safe and comfortable maneuvers that prevent a crash. However, compared to pedestrian detection, there is relatively little literature on detecting pedestrian intentions. This paper aims to contribute along this line by presenting a new vision-based approach which analyzes the
pose of a pedestrian along several frames to determine if he or she is going to enter the road or not. We present experiments showing 750 ms of anticipation for pedestrians crossing the road, which at a typical urban driving speed of 50 km/h can provide 15 additional meters (compared to a pure pedestrian detector) for vehicle automatic reactions or to warn the driver. Moreover, in contrast with state-of-the-art methods, our approach is monocular, neither requiring stereo nor optical flow information.
 
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  Notes ADAS; 600.085; 600.076; 601.223; 600.116; 600.118 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ FVL2017 Serial 2983  
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Author Xavier Soria; Angel Sappa; Riad I. Hammoud edit   pdf
url  doi
openurl 
  Title Wide-Band Color Imagery Restoration for RGB-NIR Single Sensor Images Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication (up) Sensors Abbreviated Journal SENS  
  Volume 18 Issue 7 Pages 2059  
  Keywords RGB-NIR sensor; multispectral imaging; deep learning; CNNs  
  Abstract Multi-spectral RGB-NIR sensors have become ubiquitous in recent years. These sensors allow the visible and near-infrared spectral bands of a given scene to be captured at the same time. With such cameras, the acquired imagery has a compromised RGB color representation due to near-infrared bands (700–1100 nm) cross-talking with the visible bands (400–700 nm).
This paper proposes two deep learning-based architectures to recover the full RGB color images, thus removing the NIR information from the visible bands. The proposed approaches directly restore the high-resolution RGB image by means of convolutional neural networks. They are evaluated with several outdoor images; both architectures reach a similar performance when evaluated in different
scenarios and using different similarity metrics. Both of them improve the state of the art approaches.
 
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  Notes ADAS; MSIAU; 600.086; 600.130; 600.122; 600.118 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ SSH2018 Serial 3145  
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Author Gabriel Villalonga; Joost Van de Weijer; Antonio Lopez edit  url
doi  openurl
  Title Recognizing new classes with synthetic data in the loop: application to traffic sign recognition Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication (up) Sensors Abbreviated Journal SENS  
  Volume 20 Issue 3 Pages 583  
  Keywords  
  Abstract On-board vision systems may need to increase the number of classes that can be recognized in a relatively short period. For instance, a traffic sign recognition system may suddenly be required to recognize new signs. Since collecting and annotating samples of such new classes may need more time than we wish, especially for uncommon signs, we propose a method to generate these samples by combining synthetic images and Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) technology. In particular, the GAN is trained on synthetic and real-world samples from known classes to perform synthetic-to-real domain adaptation, but applied to synthetic samples of the new classes. Using the Tsinghua dataset with a synthetic counterpart, SYNTHIA-TS, we have run an extensive set of experiments. The results show that the proposed method is indeed effective, provided that we use a proper Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to perform the traffic sign recognition (classification) task as well as a proper GAN to transform the synthetic images. Here, a ResNet101-based classifier and domain adaptation based on CycleGAN performed extremely well for a ratio∼ 1/4 for new/known classes; even for more challenging ratios such as∼ 4/1, the results are also very positive.  
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  Notes LAMP; ADAS; 600.118; 600.120 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ VWL2020 Serial 3405  
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Author Jose L. Gomez; Gabriel Villalonga; Antonio Lopez edit   pdf
url  openurl
  Title Co-Training for Deep Object Detection: Comparing Single-Modal and Multi-Modal Approaches Type Journal Article
  Year 2021 Publication (up) Sensors Abbreviated Journal SENS  
  Volume 21 Issue 9 Pages 3185  
  Keywords co-training; multi-modality; vision-based object detection; ADAS; self-driving  
  Abstract Top-performing computer vision models are powered by convolutional neural networks (CNNs). Training an accurate CNN highly depends on both the raw sensor data and their associated ground truth (GT). Collecting such GT is usually done through human labeling, which is time-consuming and does not scale as we wish. This data-labeling bottleneck may be intensified due to domain shifts among image sensors, which could force per-sensor data labeling. In this paper, we focus on the use of co-training, a semi-supervised learning (SSL) method, for obtaining self-labeled object bounding boxes (BBs), i.e., the GT to train deep object detectors. In particular, we assess the goodness of multi-modal co-training by relying on two different views of an image, namely, appearance (RGB) and estimated depth (D). Moreover, we compare appearance-based single-modal co-training with multi-modal. Our results suggest that in a standard SSL setting (no domain shift, a few human-labeled data) and under virtual-to-real domain shift (many virtual-world labeled data, no human-labeled data) multi-modal co-training outperforms single-modal. In the latter case, by performing GAN-based domain translation both co-training modalities are on par, at least when using an off-the-shelf depth estimation model not specifically trained on the translated images.  
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  Notes ADAS; 600.118 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ GVL2021 Serial 3562  
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Author Idoia Ruiz; Joan Serrat edit  doi
openurl 
  Title Hierarchical Novelty Detection for Traffic Sign Recognition Type Journal Article
  Year 2022 Publication (up) Sensors Abbreviated Journal SENS  
  Volume 22 Issue 12 Pages 4389  
  Keywords Novelty detection; hierarchical classification; deep learning; traffic sign recognition; autonomous driving; computer vision  
  Abstract Recent works have made significant progress in novelty detection, i.e., the problem of detecting samples of novel classes, never seen during training, while classifying those that belong to known classes. However, the only information this task provides about novel samples is that they are unknown. In this work, we leverage hierarchical taxonomies of classes to provide informative outputs for samples of novel classes. We predict their closest class in the taxonomy, i.e., its parent class. We address this problem, known as hierarchical novelty detection, by proposing a novel loss, namely Hierarchical Cosine Loss that is designed to learn class prototypes along with an embedding of discriminative features consistent with the taxonomy. We apply it to traffic sign recognition, where we predict the parent class semantics for new types of traffic signs. Our model beats state-of-the art approaches on two large scale traffic sign benchmarks, Mapillary Traffic Sign Dataset (MTSD) and Tsinghua-Tencent 100K (TT100K), and performs similarly on natural images benchmarks (AWA2, CUB). For TT100K and MTSD, our approach is able to detect novel samples at the correct nodes of the hierarchy with 81% and 36% of accuracy, respectively, at 80% known class accuracy.  
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  Notes ADAS; 600.154 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ si @ Serial 3684  
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Author A. Restrepo; Angel Sappa; M. Devy edit  url
openurl 
  Title Edge registration versus triangular mesh registration, a comparative study Type Journal
  Year 2005 Publication (up) Signal Processing: Image Communication 20: 853–868 (IF: 1.264) Abbreviated Journal  
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  Notes ADAS Approved no  
  Call Number ADAS @ adas @ RSD2005 Serial 567  
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Author Angel Sappa; M.A. Garcia edit  openurl
  Title Incremental Integration of Multiresolution Range Images Type Journal
  Year 2007 Publication (up) The imaging science journal. Vol. 55, No. 3 pp. 127–139 Abbreviated Journal  
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  Notes ADAS Approved no  
  Call Number ADAS @ adas @ SaG2007d Serial 812  
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Author Sergio Vera; Debora Gil; Antonio Lopez; Miguel Angel Gonzalez Ballester edit   pdf
url  openurl
  Title Multilocal Creaseness Measure Type Journal
  Year 2012 Publication (up) The Insight Journal Abbreviated Journal IJ  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Ridges, Valley, Creaseness, Structure Tensor, Skeleton,  
  Abstract This document describes the implementation using the Insight Toolkit of an algorithm for detecting creases (ridges and valleys) in N-dimensional images, based on the Local Structure Tensor of the image. In addition to the filter used to calculate the creaseness image, a filter for the computation of the structure tensor is also included in this submission.  
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  Corporate Author Alma IT Systems Thesis  
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  Language english Summary Language english Original Title  
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  Notes IAM;ADAS; Approved no  
  Call Number IAM @ iam @ VGL2012 Serial 1840  
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